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English 104:  Fallacies of Argument
 

English 104: Fallacies of Argument

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Presentation delivered to the English 104 class at Victor Valley College.

Presentation delivered to the English 104 class at Victor Valley College.

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    English 104:  Fallacies of Argument English 104: Fallacies of Argument Presentation Transcript

    • English 104 Fallacies of Argument
    • Fallacies of Argument  When examining another’s argument, look for fallacies: ◦ Fallacies of emotional argument ◦ Fallacies of ethical argument ◦ Fallacies of logical argument  Try to avoid fallacies in your own work. • Anticipate accusations of fallacies from opponents and address the counterarguments in your writing.
    • Fallacies of Emotional Argument  Scare tactics ◦ Exaggerating possible dangers beyond their statistical likelihood  Either-Or Choices ◦ Reducing complicated issues to only two options, one obviously preferable to the other  Slippery Slope ◦ Exaggerating the likely consequences of an action ◦ Also a form of scare tactic  Bandwagon Appeals ◦ Urge people to follow the same path everyone else is taking
    • Fallacies of Emotional Argument  Choose the fallacy that best corresponds to each statement: 1. Legalizing gay marriage will inevitably lead to widespread bestiality. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal 2. The United States should have universal healthcare because many countries in Europe and Asia have universal healthcare. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal 3. We should stop immigration because immigrants will take away your jobs. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal 4. Either we invest heavily in solar energy, or our energy shortages will continue. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal
    • Fallacies of Emotional Argument  Choose the fallacy that best corresponds to each statement: 1. Legalizing gay marriage will inevitably lead to widespread bestiality. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal 2. The United States should have universal healthcare because many countries in Europe and Asia have universal healthcare. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal 3. We should stop immigration because immigrants will take away your jobs. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal 4. Either we invest heavily in solar energy, or our energy shortages will continue. a. Scare tactic b. Either-Or c. Slippery Slope d. Bandwagon Appeal
    • Fallacies of Ethical Argument  Appeals to false authority ◦ Relying on disreputable sources  Dogmatism ◦ Implying that no arguments are necessary and the truth is self-evident  Ad Hominem ◦ Attacking the character of a person rather than their claims
    • Fallacies of Ethical Argument  Choose the fallacy that best corresponds to each statement: 1. Don’t vote for Mitt Romney because he’s a wealthy, self- important, spoiled idiot. a. False authority b. Dogmatism c. Ad Hominem 2. Obviously, abortion is a heinous crime. a. False authority b. Dogmatism c. Ad Hominem 3. Pepsi is better than Coca-Cola because Britney Spears endorsed Pepsi. a. False authority b. Dogmatism c. Ad Hominem
    • Fallacies of Ethical Argument  Choose the fallacy that best corresponds to each statement: 1. Don’t vote for Mitt Romney because he’s a wealthy, self- important, spoiled idiot. a. False authority b. Dogmatism c. Ad Hominem 2. Obviously, abortion is a heinous crime. a. False authority b. Dogmatism c. Ad Hominem 3. Pepsi is better than Coca-Cola because Britney Spears endorsed Pepsi. a. False authority b. Dogmatism c. Ad Hominem
    • Fallacies of Logical Argument  Hasty Generalization ◦ Inference drawn from insufficient evidence  Faulty Causality ◦ Faulty assumption that because one event follows another, the first causes the second  Non Sequitur ◦ Argument whose claims, reasons, or warrants don’t connect logically  Faulty Analogy ◦ Inaccurate comparisons between objects or concepts
    • Fallacies of Logical Argument  Choose the fallacy that best corresponds to each statement: 1. Because one immigrant committed a crime, all immigrants must be criminals. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy 2. Egypt is likeTaiwan; because Egypt experienced a political uprising,Taiwan will as well. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy 3. American students perform poorly on international math exams because Americans are stupid. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy 4. After the invention of video games, childhood obesity increased; therefore, video games cause obesity. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy
    • Fallacies of Logical Argument  Choose the fallacy that best corresponds to each statement: 1. Because one immigrant committed a crime, all immigrants must be criminals. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy 2. Egypt is likeTaiwan; because Egypt experienced a political uprising,Taiwan will as well. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy 3. American students must be stupid because they perform poorly on international math exams. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy 4. After the invention of video games, childhood obesity increased; therefore, video games cause obesity. a. Hasty generalization b. Faulty causality c. Non Sequitur d. Faulty analogy
    • Trust, Morality – and Oxytocin?  Neuroeconomist Paul Zak shows why he believes oxytocin is responsible for trust, empathy and other feelings that help build a stable society.
    • Beware Neuro-bunk  In this to-the-point talk, Molly Crockett explains the limits of interpreting neuroscientific data, and why we should all be aware of them.
    • Activity  Paul Zak’s “Trust, Morality – and Oxytocin?”  Molly Crockett’s “Beware Neuro-bunk” ◦ Discussion and Comprehension exercise