Exercise and habits          Gert-Jan de BruijnAmsterdam School of Communication Research         University of Amsterdam
Habits“We are what we repeatedly do” - Aristotle (384 - 322 BC)“Most of the time, we do things we do most of the times”‘A ...
OverviewUnderstanding exercise behaviour and habits: action control researchUnderstanding exercise behaviour and habits: a...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlAction control: translating intentions into behaviour (e.g. Kuhl, 1985, 1992)Typically, ...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit                               Insufficient PA                    Sufficient PA ...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit                               Insufficient PA                    Sufficient PA ...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit                               Insufficient PA                    Sufficient PA ...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit                          Insufficient PA              Sufficient PA            ...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit                          Insufficient PA              Sufficient PA            ...
Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit                          Insufficient PA              Sufficient PA            ...
Intermezzo IStronger exercise habits minimize the intention-exercise gapThe relationship is still not perfect, even when s...
MethodsOnline study amongst undergraduate students in a social psychology course (n=415)       Baseline assessment: intent...
MethodsAnalytical plan       Basic descriptives       Stepwise regression analysis            Step 1: Perceived Behavioura...
Results (2)                               Step 1         Step 2        Step 3            Step 4            Step 5         ...
Simple slope analysisPlanning x intention interaction          Low exercise planning: intention - exercise beta = .27***  ...
Simple slope analysis: planning x habit x intentionExercise behaviour                                                     ...
Planning x habit x intention: follow-up tests of slope differencesHigh planning, high habit (beta = .74)                  ...
Intermezzo IIStrong exercise habits minimize the intention-exercise gapStrong habits in combination with strong action pla...
Affect and ExerciseJudgments about the overall pleasure/enjoyability of exercise behaviourMeta-analysed r between PA and a...
Affect and Exercise288 participants (M = 21.3 years, SD = 2.96, 73.3% females)Baseline data (-3=totally disagree; +3 = tot...
Affect and Exercise: MethodsThree exercise habit strength groups                  Weak habits: habit strength score <= -2 ...
Affect and Exercise: Results          Low Habit           Moderate Habit         Strong Habit   3                         ...
Affect and Exercise: Results             Insufficient Exercise              Sufficient Exercise   3                         ...
Affect and Exercise: Results       Low Habit        Moderate Habit        Strong Habit     Moderate Habit           Strong...
Affect and Exercise: Pre-exercise AffectPeople who have a more enjoyable outlook on future exercise behaviour...          ...
Affect and Exercise: Results        Low Habit       Moderate Habit       Strong Habit     Moderate Habit            Strong...
Affect and Exercise: Results       Low Habit     Moderate Habit       Strong Habit       Moderate Habit      Strong Habit ...
Affect and Exercise: Results        Low Habit              Moderate Habit          Strong Habit        Moderate Habit     ...
Affect and Exercise: Post-exercise AffectPeople who do not exercise in line with their habits, feel bad about their perfor...
Intermezzo IIIStrong exercise habits minimize the intention-exercise gapStrong habits in combination with strong action pl...
Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1)Undergraduate students (66.6% female, mean age = 21.24 (SD = 2.82)Baseline d...
Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1) Step 1: significant T0 predictors of T1 exercise automaticity               ...
Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1)Simple Slope analyses   Low PBC: Planning When - Automaticity relationship i...
Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1)What predicts increases in exercise automaticity?      You should exercise m...
Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 2)Three wave study in undergraduate students (n = 288)       Time 0: intention...
Exercise              Intention                  Habit             Planning     Exercise                 Intention        ...
Exercise                 Intention                Habit            Planning     Exercise                 Intention        ...
Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 2)Exercise T0 predicts exercise T1 (b=.60), intention t1 (b=.14) and habit T1 ...
Relevant referencesDe Bruijn GJ, Rhodes Re, Van Osch L (in press). Does action planning moderate the intention-habitintera...
Exercise and habits
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Exercise and habits

1,380

Published on

Gert-Jan de Bruijn
Amsterdam School of Communication Research
University of Amsterdam

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,380
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Exercise and habits"

  1. 1. Exercise and habits Gert-Jan de BruijnAmsterdam School of Communication Research University of Amsterdam
  2. 2. Habits“We are what we repeatedly do” - Aristotle (384 - 322 BC)“Most of the time, we do things we do most of the times”‘A matter of routine, I’ve done it ever since I finished school” - ABBA (The day before you came)Behaviour you have done repeatedly in stable contextSome researchers provide evidence that habits are goal-actived behaviours
  3. 3. OverviewUnderstanding exercise behaviour and habits: action control researchUnderstanding exercise behaviour and habits: affective considerations of exerciseModeling exercise automaticity: two longitudinal studies in undergraduate samples
  4. 4. Habits and Exercise Action ControlAction control: translating intentions into behaviour (e.g. Kuhl, 1985, 1992)Typically, 30%-50% of study samples are not translating their intentions into behaviourIs this ‘gap’ less pronounced when strong habits have developed?Apparently so....Some work with Ryan Rhodes, University of Victoria
  5. 5. Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit Insufficient PA Sufficient PA Nonintender 25 3 Intender 6 2Moderate habit Nonintender 19 6 Intender 13 25Strong habit Nonintender 7 2 Intender 7 28 Rhodes, Matheson, De Bruijn (2010) J Sport Exerc Psychol, 32, 84-98
  6. 6. Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit Insufficient PA Sufficient PA Nonintender 89.3% 10.7% Intender 75% 25%Moderate habit Nonintender 76% 24% Intender 34.2% 65.8%Strong habit Nonintender 77.8% 22.2% Intender 20% 80% Rhodes, Matheson, De Bruijn (2010) J Sport Exerc Psychol, 32, 84-98
  7. 7. Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit Insufficient PA Sufficient PA Nonintender 89.3% 10.7% Intender 75% 25%Moderate habit Nonintender 76% 24% Intender 34.2% 65.8%Strong habit Nonintender 77.8% 22.2% Intender 20% 80% Rhodes, Matheson, De Bruijn (2010) J Sport Exerc Psychol, 32, 84-98
  8. 8. Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit Insufficient PA Sufficient PA Nonintender 147 2 Intender 34 10Strong habit Nonintender 18 0 Intender 70 49 De Bruijn (2011). Psychol Sport Exerc, 12, 106-114
  9. 9. Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit Insufficient PA Sufficient PA Nonintender 98.6% 1.4% Intender 77.3% 22.7%Strong habit Nonintender 100% 0% Intender 58.8% 41.2% De Bruijn (2011). Psychol Sport Exerc, 12, 106-114
  10. 10. Habits and Exercise Action ControlWeak habit Insufficient PA Sufficient PA Nonintender 98.6% 1.4% Intender 77.3% 22.7%Strong habit Nonintender 100% 0% Intender 58.8% 41.2% De Bruijn (2011). Psychol Sport Exerc, 12, 106-114
  11. 11. Intermezzo IStronger exercise habits minimize the intention-exercise gapThe relationship is still not perfect, even when strong exercise habits existInteract the interaction?Self-regulatory planning strategies have helped before (some work by someone called Falko)
  12. 12. MethodsOnline study amongst undergraduate students in a social psychology course (n=415) Baseline assessment: intention - habit strength - action planning Follow-up (= baseline + two weeks): exercise behaviour (IPAQ) Baseline items in relation to ‘exercising for at least 60 minutes in the next two weeks’ on 7-point scales (-3 = totally disagree; +3 = totally agree) Action planning items (alpha = .94) I have made detailed plans (i) when, (ii), where, (iii) with whom, and (iv) what kind Intention items (alpha = .96) (i) I intend to exercise and (ii) I am sure I will exercise Habit strength items cf. Verplanken and Orbell (2003): alpha = .95 e.g. exercising is something (i) I do automatically, (ii) I start doing without having to think about it, (iii) I do without thinking, (iv) I would find hard not do
  13. 13. MethodsAnalytical plan Basic descriptives Stepwise regression analysis Step 1: Perceived Behavioural Control - Intention Step 2: Instrumental Attitude - Affective Attitude - Subjective Norms Step 3: Habit Strength - Planning Step 4: The three two-way interactions (e.g. planning x intention, habit x planning) Step 5: Three-way interaction habit x planning x intention Follow-up analysis Two-way interaction: slope analysis using Aiken & West (1991) suggestions Three-way interaction: slope analysis and slope comparison tests using Dawson & Richter (2006) suggestions
  14. 14. Results (2) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Intention .24** .24** .18* .18* .17* PBC .34*** .33*** .25** .19* .22** Step 2 variables Instrumental attitude .04 .04 .01 .01 Affective attitude .02 -.08 .01 -.01 Subjective norm -.05 -.08 -.06 -.05 Step 3 variables Habit strength .23** .15* .10 Planning .20** .25** .14* Step 4 variables Habit x Planning .13 .14 Habit x Intention .22** .24*** Intention x Planning .20** .25*** Step 5 variablesHabit x Planning x Intention .15** De Bruijn, Rhodes, & Van Osch (in press). J Behav Med
  15. 15. Simple slope analysisPlanning x intention interaction Low exercise planning: intention - exercise beta = .27*** Medium exercise planning: intention - exercise beta = .43*** High exercise planning: intention - exercise beta = .63***Habit x intention interaction Low exercise habit: intention - exercise beta = .16* Medium exercise habit: intention - exercise beta = .42*** High exercise habit: intention - exercise beta = .62***
  16. 16. Simple slope analysis: planning x habit x intentionExercise behaviour (1) High Planning, High Habit (2) High Planning, Low Habit (3) Low Planning, High Habit (4) Low Planning, Low Habit Low Intention High Intention Low planning, low habit: Intention-exercise beta = -.08 (ns) Low planning, high habit: Intention-exercise beta = .25* High planning, low habit: Intention-exercise beta = .17 (ns) High planning, high habit: Intention-exercise beta = .74*** De Bruijn, Rhodes, & Van Osch (in press). J Behav Med
  17. 17. Planning x habit x intention: follow-up tests of slope differencesHigh planning, high habit (beta = .74) High planning, low habit (beta=.17): t(413) = 5.204*** Low planning, high habit (beta=.25): t(413) = 4.318*** Low planning, low habit (beta=-.08): t(413) = 5.794***High planning, low habit (beta = .17) Low planning, high habit (beta=.25): t(413) = .-.428 (ns) Low planning, low habit (beta= -.08): t(413) = 2.593**Low planning, high habit (beta = .25) Low planning, low habit (beta=-.08): t(413) = 3.754*** De Bruijn, Rhodes, & Van Osch (in press). J Behav Med
  18. 18. Intermezzo IIStrong exercise habits minimize the intention-exercise gapStrong habits in combination with strong action plans minimize this gap even furtherOne potential problem: we tend to ask people all sort of things before they exerciseHow to people think about exercise, after they have done their exercise?Study on Habits, Exercise, Pre-exercise affect, and Post-exercise affective responsesWhy study affective responses?
  19. 19. Affect and ExerciseJudgments about the overall pleasure/enjoyability of exercise behaviourMeta-analysed r between PA and affect is .42 (95%CI .37-.46) (Rhodes et al., 2009)Affect influences exercise behaviour directly (e.g. unmediated by intentions), similar to habitUsually a strong correlation between affective attitudes and habits (r between .40 and .66)Main question: how do strong habitual exercisers react to insufficient exercise?Study done in collaboration with Professor Bob Grove (University of Western Australia)
  20. 20. Affect and Exercise288 participants (M = 21.3 years, SD = 2.96, 73.3% females)Baseline data (-3=totally disagree; +3 = totally agree) SRHI towards sufficient exercise behaviour Affective attitude towards sufficient exercise behaviour in the next 2 weeks Enjoyable - Pleasant - Relaxing I intend to / I am sure I will engage in sufficient exercise in the next 2 weeksFollow-up data (= baseline + 2 weeks) Exercise behaviour in the previous two weeks (relevant items from IPAQ) Post-exercise affective attitudes (enjoyable - pleasant - relaxing) Engaging in the amount of exercise in the past two weeks, was for me...
  21. 21. Affect and Exercise: MethodsThree exercise habit strength groups Weak habits: habit strength score <= -2 (n = 53) Moderate habits: habit strength score between -2 and +2 (n = 197) Strong habits: habit strength score >= +2 (n = 38)Two exercise groups Insufficient exercise: did not meet the exercise norm (n = 227) Sufficient exercise: did meet the exercise norm (n = 61)2 (norm) x 3 (habit strenght) analysis of variance, with intention as covariate
  22. 22. Affect and Exercise: Results Low Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit 3 2,59 2 1,61 1 0,21 0 -1 Post-Exercise AffectF(2,282) = 35.55, p < .001, η2 = .20
  23. 23. Affect and Exercise: Results Insufficient Exercise Sufficient Exercise 3 2,16 2 1,51 1 0 -1 Pre-Exercise AffectF(2,283) = 3.96, p = .0122, η2 = .02
  24. 24. Affect and Exercise: Results Low Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Do not meet norm Meet norm3 2,75 2,422 1,9 1,531 0,210-1 Pre-Exercise Affect F(1, 283) = 0.01, p = .942, η2 = .00
  25. 25. Affect and Exercise: Pre-exercise AffectPeople who have a more enjoyable outlook on future exercise behaviour... ...exercise more.Not particularly novelThis effect does not depend on exercise habit strengthPerhaps somewhat novelWhat happens with post-exercise affect?
  26. 26. Affect and Exercise: Results Low Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Do not meet norm Meet norm3 2,862 1,51 1,52 1,1110 -0,03-1 Post-Exercise Affect F(1, 283) = 6.45, p = .016, η2 = . 03
  27. 27. Affect and Exercise: Results Low Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Do not meet norm Meet norm32 1,52 1,1110-1 Post-Exercise Affect Mean difference = 0.41, p = .354
  28. 28. Affect and Exercise: Results Low Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Moderate Habit Strong Habit Do not meet norm Meet norm3 2,862 1,5110-1 Post-Exercise Affect Mean difference = 1.35, p < .001
  29. 29. Affect and Exercise: Post-exercise AffectPeople who do not exercise in line with their habits, feel bad about their performanceThis effect is most pronounced in those who have strong exercise habitsUse anticipated regret in exercise interventions?
  30. 30. Intermezzo IIIStrong exercise habits minimize the intention-exercise gapStrong habits in combination with strong action plans minimize this gap even furtherPeople with strong habits have strong (negative) affective responses to insufficient exercisePerhaps we can conclude that exercise habits are relevant for exercise behaviourThen what predicts exercise habits? Two studies on exercise automaticity
  31. 31. Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1)Undergraduate students (66.6% female, mean age = 21.24 (SD = 2.82)Baseline data Intention towards sufficient exercise behaviour in the next two weeks Perceived Behavioural Control towards sufficient exercise behaviour Affective and Cognitive attitude towards sufficient exercise behaviour Planning items when - where- what type of exercise behaviour Follow-up data (baseline + 2 weeks) Habit strength towards exercise behaviour Stepwise regression analyses: follow-up habits as dependent variable Step 1: main effects Step 2: interaction effects
  32. 32. Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1) Step 1: significant T0 predictors of T1 exercise automaticity Affective attitude: B = .14 PBC: B = .43 Planning when: B = .18 Planning where: B = .18 Exercise behaviour: B = .22Step 2: significant T0 interactions of T1 exercise automaticity PBC * Planning when: B=.24
  33. 33. Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1)Simple Slope analyses Low PBC: Planning When - Automaticity relationship is B = .20, p = .001 Mean PBC: Planning When - Automaticity relationship is B = .11, p = .012 High PBC: Planning When - Automaticity relationship is B = .06, p = .274
  34. 34. Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 1)What predicts increases in exercise automaticity? You should exercise more You should enjoy it more You should feel confident about exercising You should plan when and where to exercise When you have low self-efficacy, you need to plan when When you have high self-efficacy, you do not need to plan when
  35. 35. Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 2)Three wave study in undergraduate students (n = 288) Time 0: intention - action planning - habit - exercise behaviour Time 1: intention - action planning - habit - exercise behaviour Time 2: habit - exercise behaviourStructural Equation Models were constructed in AMOS 7.0 Test significance of all paths Test mediation of T1 variables on T0 - T2 relationships
  36. 36. Exercise Intention Habit Planning Exercise Intention Habit Planning Exercise HabitModel fit: χ = 46.86 (9), p < .001, NFI=.98, CFI=.98, RMSEA=.09, AIC=158.86
  37. 37. Exercise Intention Habit Planning Exercise Intention Habit Planning Exercise HabitFinal model fit: χ = 19.45 (15), p = .149, NFI=1.00, CFI=1.00, RMSEA=.02, AIC=119.46
  38. 38. Antecedents of exercise automaticity (study 2)Exercise T0 predicts exercise T1 (b=.60), intention t1 (b=.14) and habit T1 (b=.19)Intention T0 predicts intention 1 (b=.49)Planning T0 predicts Planning T1 (b=.62), exercise T1 (b=.15), and intention T1 (b=.11)Habit T0 predicts Planning T1 (b=.19), exercise T1 (b=.15), Habit T1 (b=.58), intention T1 (b=.19)Habit T0 also predicts Habit T2 (b=.45)Exercise T1 predicts exercise T2 (b=.66)Habit T1 predicts Habit T2 (b=.45) and Exercise T2 (b=.10)Intention T1 predicts Habit T2 (b=.16) and Exercise T2 (b=.11)
  39. 39. Relevant referencesDe Bruijn GJ, Rhodes Re, Van Osch L (in press). Does action planning moderate the intention-habitinteraction int the exercise domain? A three-way interaction analysis investigation. J Behav MedDe Bruijn GJ (2011). Exercise habit strength, planning and the theory of planned behaviour: anaction control approach. Psychol Sport Exerc, 12, 106-14Gardner B, De Bruijn GJ, Lally P (2011). A systematic review and meta-analysis of applications ofthe self-report habit index to nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Ann Behav Med, 42, 174-187.Rhodes RE, De Bruijn GJ, Matheson D (2010). Habit in the physical activity domain: Integration withintention temporal stability and action control. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 32, 84-98De Bruijn GJ, Keer M, Conner M, Rhodes, RE (in press). Using implicit associations to understandfruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationship. J Health Psychol
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×