Who is the founder of Singapore?


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Who is the founder of Singapore?

  1. 1. chapter two Who was the founder of Singapore?
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives <ul><li>Factors for the British choice of Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Problems the British faced in starting a Trading Settlement in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>The Importance of the Singapore Treaty to the British </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rivalry between the British and the Dutch <ul><li>In the early 19th century, European trading companies competed for economic profit. </li></ul><ul><li>The British had Penang and Bencoolen as trading settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch controlled Melaka and Java for trade. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rivalry between the British and the Dutch <ul><li>Why the British were disadvantaged: </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch did not allow any European ships to trade in most of the Dutch-controlled ports except at Batavia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch restricted European traders who stopped at Batavia by charging high port fees and heavy taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>The British trading ports in the Malay Archipelago were unsuitable for trade between India and China. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rivalry between the British and the Dutch <ul><li>The Dutch thus became the biggest rival of the British in Southeast Asia since they possessed a monopoly of trade there. </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: The British were prompted to search for a new trading settlement that would be in a better position to safeguard their own ships and also to reduce the threat from the Dutch monopoly. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The arrival of Raffles <ul><li>28 Jan 1819, Raffles reached Singapore waters. </li></ul><ul><li>29 Jan 1819, Raffles and Farquhar met the Temenggong, a senior minister of the Johor-Riau sultanate. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Factors for the British choice of Singapore <ul><li>Unsuitability of Penang and Bencoolen as trading ports </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore was strategically located – centralized, in the heart of the Malay Archipelago, along the main trading route between India and China. Suitable as a port due to its: </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent harbour </li></ul><ul><li>Plentiful supply of drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch were not on the island. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problems the British faced in starting a Trading Settlement (I) <ul><li>From the Temenggong, Raffles discovered only Sultan Abdul Rahman could grant the British permission. HOWEVER, the Sultan was under the control of the Dutch, who would not allow the British to occupy Singapore. </li></ul>
  9. 10. How Raffles dealt with the problem <ul><li>Raffles capitalized on the succession dispute in the Johor-Riau sultanate. </li></ul><ul><li>He recognized Tengku as the rightful Sultan and obtained permission from him. </li></ul>
  10. 11. How Raffles dealt with the problem <ul><li>The treaty was signed on 6 Feb 1819. </li></ul><ul><li>An annual allowance of $5000 and $3000 was to be given to the Sultan and the Temengong respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>They would also given an entitlement to half of any ports duties collected from native vessels. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Problems the British faced in starting a Trading Settlement (II) <ul><li>The Dutch protested against the trading settlement in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘ paper war ’ began. </li></ul>
  12. 13. How both parties resolved it <ul><li>Both sides had their reasons for not declaring a war despite their animosity. </li></ul><ul><li>British: Wanted to use Holland as a strong buffer state against foreign aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch: Holland was financially weak and could not afford to wage war. </li></ul><ul><li>A peace settlement was eventually signed in 1824 (The Anglo-Dutch Treaty). </li></ul>
  13. 14. Terms of The Anglo-Dutch Treaty (1824) <ul><li>The Malay Peninsula and Singapore came under the British. </li></ul><ul><li>The East Indies and the port of Bencoolen came under the Dutch. </li></ul><ul><li>The port of Melaka came under the British. </li></ul><ul><li>The British would now have 3 ports along the Straits of Melaka, namely: Penang, Melaka and Singapore. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Importance of the Singapore Treaty to the British <ul><li>Gave the British rights to start a trading settlement in Singapore, but Singapore was still a territory controlled by a Malay Ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Broke the trading monopoly of the Dutch in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated the all important India-China trade </li></ul>
  15. 16. the controversy. Who exactly should be regarded as the founder of Singapore?
  16. 17. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles <ul><li>“ A child of my own…”, “My new colony…” </li></ul><ul><li>Signed the 1819 treaty that allowed the British to build a settlement in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>But left Singapore in hands of Farquhar thereafter. </li></ul>
  17. 18. William Farquhar <ul><li>Both British Resident and Commandant in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Cleared jungle and built basic housing </li></ul><ul><li>Guarded Singapore against Dutch attacks </li></ul><ul><li>On his tomb, he claimed that he founded the settlement in Singapore </li></ul>
  18. 19. Farquhar’s Role <ul><li>Invited people to trade and live in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Solved food shortage problem by spreading news to Melaka, whose traders brought food products down. </li></ul><ul><li>Solved crime and disorder partially by setting up a small police force </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated the infestation of rats and centipedes by offering cash rewards for every pest killed. </li></ul>
  19. 20. John Crawfurd <ul><li>Signed 1824 treaty which made Singapore a British colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Was resident of Singapore from 1823 - 1826 </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a court to hear local cases. </li></ul>
  20. 21. And the credit goes to…? <ul><li>“… The credit for Singapore’s growth must go to those who made it grow, to the people who in defiance of all history built a bustling port on the equator.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Malay Rajas, Straits and Nanyang Chinese, Bugis, Indians, Arabs, Armenians and the Jews, the Europeans and all those unnamed pioneering settlers who made Singapore worked.” </li></ul>
  21. 22. Some definitions <ul><li>Why the fuss? The term ‘founder’ can be interpreted differently. </li></ul><ul><li>One who establishes a settlement </li></ul><ul><li>One who contributes to the growth politically, economically and socially. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Following the definitions… <ul><li>Under the first meaning, then Raffles is the founder since he signed the 1819 treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>If we take the second meaning, Farquhar should be given the credit as he built Singapore in its early years. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet others believe John Crawfurd should be the real founder. On the other hand, Crawfurd signed the 1824 treaty that granted the British complete possession of Singapore. </li></ul>
  23. 24. A comprehensive view <ul><li>Raffles’ vision + Farquhar’s energy + Crawfurd’s shrewdness = converted Raffles’ dreams into reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Without Raffles, Singapore might not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Without Farquhar, the infant settlement might not be nursed through its infant years. </li></ul><ul><li>Without Crawfurd, Singapore might not have prospered. </li></ul><ul><li>All played a part to make Singapore famous and reputable. </li></ul><ul><li>But Raffles’ fame and reputation remained, compared to Farquhar and Crawfurd. </li></ul>