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  • 1. Motivation Session 10
  • 2. What is Motivation? Motivation has been defined as „the direction and intensity of ones efforts‟ (Sage 1977) Direction refers to the decision to commit and to turn up to training on a regular basis. The intensity dimension is about how much people are prepared to give in each training session. In sport, these dimensions are often related, with committed individuals attending training on a regular basis and working hard during their sessions. However what could happen if somebody wants to win so badly??
  • 3. Approaches to Motivation Like personality the motivational area takes a similar approach and most fit motivation into the following 3 orientations: Trait centred orientation Situation centred orientation Interactional orientation Based upon the personality centred approach can you come up with a description of each motivational viewpoint?
  • 4. Trait centred view Motivated behaviour is primarily a function of individual characteristics The personality, needs and goals of a person are the primary determinants of motivated behaviour Some people have the characteristics to be successful and have high levels of motivation, others seem to lack motivation have no “get up and go” or desire Contradictions???? Situations must be taken into account
  • 5. Situation centred view Motivation levels are determined by the situation e.g. Little Johnny might be motivated to play in a competitive rugby match but less so when in training or in the gym. However can we remain motivated despite a negative environment that has been caused? Maybe the situation was not the primary factor for influencing motivation?
  • 6. The interactional view Motivation does not solely depend upon participant factors alone or situational factors alone but how these two sets of factors interact Participant – by – Situation interaction Personal Factors Situational Factors Personality Participant Leader/coach style Needs Motivation Facility attractiveness Interests Team win/loss record Goals
  • 7. What is Achievement motivation? This refers to a persons efforts to master a task, achieve excellence, overcome obstacles, perform better and take pride in their talent (Murray, 1938) Achievement motivation concerns with the desire to do well, succeed and reach standards in ones own eyes and the eyes of others, and reflects a willingness to persist in behaviour that enables higher standards to be reached despite the possibility of failure (Hill, 2001) Achievement motivation in sport is known as competitiveness.
  • 8. Theories of Achievement Motivation As coaches it would be beneficial if we understand why motivation differences occur in different people so we can intervene. Therefore we must look at how a persons achievement motivation can influence behaviour, thoughts and feelings such as choice of activity, effort to pursue goals, and our persistence. The following theory attempt to explain how we act in certain situations.
  • 9. Need achievement theory Interactional viewpoint Five components make up this theory:
  • 10. Need Achievement theory ModelMotive to Probability Approach Focus on =achieve of success success pride ofsuccess success X Incentive Avoid Focus onMotive to value of = failure shame ofavoid failure success failurePersonality Situational ResultantEmotionalFactors Factors TendancyReactions
  • 11. Activity Look at the handout, and the table on the previous page. Attempt to explain the 5 components that make up the need achievement theory, use examples to illustrate your answers.
  • 12. Personality Factors Each of us have 2 underlying achievement motives: Achieve success v Avoiding failure The need to achieve success (n.Ach) – motivated to achieve success for feelings of pride and satisfaction. The need to avoid failure (n.Af) –motivated to avoid failure so as to avoid feelings of shame and humiliation „A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments.‟ (D. Gill 1986)
  • 13. Situational factors 2 primary considerations Probability of success & Incentive value of success Probability of success depends on whom you play against or difficulty of task Value of success would be higher if playing against a more challenging opponent Provides high achievers most incentive for engaging in achievement behaviour Low achievers don‟t see it this way, losing an evenly matched game will maximise embarrassment
  • 14. Resultant tendencies High achievers seek out challenges because they enjoy competing others of equal ability or performing tasks not too easy. Low achievers avoid challenges opting for easy tasks where success is guaranteed or for unrealistic challenges where failure is certain. With whom will a 50-50 chance of winning cause uncertainty and worry over?
  • 15. Emotional reactions This relates to how much pride or shame the individual experiences. Both low and high achievers will want to increase pride and minimise shame, however the situation will react differently with certain personalities What do you think high achievers and low achievers will focus more on?
  • 16. Achievement Behaviour Shows us how the other 4 components interact to influence behaviour.High Achievers Low AchieversMore Challenging tasks Avoid intermediate riskPrefer intermediate risks Perform worse in evaluative situationsPerform better under Avoid challenging tasksevaluationEnhanced performance Perform Poorly
  • 17. Conclusion What are the approaches to motivation? How could we define achievement motivation What are the 5 components that make up the achievement motivation theory?