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What is Motivation? Motivation has been defined as „the direction and intensity of ones efforts‟ (Sage 1977) Direction refers to the decision to commit and to turn up to training on a regular basis. The intensity dimension is about how much people are prepared to give in each training session. In sport, these dimensions are often related, with committed individuals attending training on a regular basis and working hard during their sessions. However what could happen if somebody wants to win so badly??
Approaches to Motivation Like personality the motivational area takes a similar approach and most fit motivation into the following 3 orientations: Trait centred orientation Situation centred orientation Interactional orientation Based upon the personality centred approach can you come up with a description of each motivational viewpoint?
Trait centred view Motivated behaviour is primarily a function of individual characteristics The personality, needs and goals of a person are the primary determinants of motivated behaviour Some people have the characteristics to be successful and have high levels of motivation, others seem to lack motivation have no “get up and go” or desire Contradictions???? Situations must be taken into account
Situation centred view Motivation levels are determined by the situation e.g. Little Johnny might be motivated to play in a competitive rugby match but less so when in training or in the gym. However can we remain motivated despite a negative environment that has been caused? Maybe the situation was not the primary factor for influencing motivation?
The interactional view Motivation does not solely depend upon participant factors alone or situational factors alone but how these two sets of factors interact Participant – by – Situation interaction Personal Factors Situational Factors Personality Participant Leader/coach style Needs Motivation Facility attractiveness Interests Team win/loss record Goals
What is Achievement motivation? This refers to a persons efforts to master a task, achieve excellence, overcome obstacles, perform better and take pride in their talent (Murray, 1938) Achievement motivation concerns with the desire to do well, succeed and reach standards in ones own eyes and the eyes of others, and reflects a willingness to persist in behaviour that enables higher standards to be reached despite the possibility of failure (Hill, 2001) Achievement motivation in sport is known as competitiveness.
Theories of Achievement Motivation As coaches it would be beneficial if we understand why motivation differences occur in different people so we can intervene. Therefore we must look at how a persons achievement motivation can influence behaviour, thoughts and feelings such as choice of activity, effort to pursue goals, and our persistence. The following theory attempt to explain how we act in certain situations.
Need achievement theory Interactional viewpoint Five components make up this theory:
Need Achievement theory ModelMotive to Probability Approach Focus on =achieve of success success pride ofsuccess success X Incentive Avoid Focus onMotive to value of = failure shame ofavoid failure success failurePersonality Situational ResultantEmotionalFactors Factors TendancyReactions
Activity Look at the handout, and the table on the previous page. Attempt to explain the 5 components that make up the need achievement theory, use examples to illustrate your answers.
Personality Factors Each of us have 2 underlying achievement motives: Achieve success v Avoiding failure The need to achieve success (n.Ach) – motivated to achieve success for feelings of pride and satisfaction. The need to avoid failure (n.Af) –motivated to avoid failure so as to avoid feelings of shame and humiliation „A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments.‟ (D. Gill 1986)
Situational factors 2 primary considerations Probability of success & Incentive value of success Probability of success depends on whom you play against or difficulty of task Value of success would be higher if playing against a more challenging opponent Provides high achievers most incentive for engaging in achievement behaviour Low achievers don‟t see it this way, losing an evenly matched game will maximise embarrassment
Resultant tendencies High achievers seek out challenges because they enjoy competing others of equal ability or performing tasks not too easy. Low achievers avoid challenges opting for easy tasks where success is guaranteed or for unrealistic challenges where failure is certain. With whom will a 50-50 chance of winning cause uncertainty and worry over?
Emotional reactions This relates to how much pride or shame the individual experiences. Both low and high achievers will want to increase pride and minimise shame, however the situation will react differently with certain personalities What do you think high achievers and low achievers will focus more on?
Achievement Behaviour Shows us how the other 4 components interact to influence behaviour.High Achievers Low AchieversMore Challenging tasks Avoid intermediate riskPrefer intermediate risks Perform worse in evaluative situationsPerform better under Avoid challenging tasksevaluationEnhanced performance Perform Poorly
Conclusion What are the approaches to motivation? How could we define achievement motivation What are the 5 components that make up the achievement motivation theory?