Mining Methods
E X P L O R A T IO N                         L O C A T E & D E F IN E D E P O S IT                   S E L E C T M IN IN G...
 Mining is extracting ore or minerals from the ground An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economic...
Quặng sắt (hệ tầng sắt phân dải)Quặng vàng
Mining methods There are two       Underground main types of        Surface mines.                      Placer 1) Surf...
What determines the type of               mining? Underground v.s. Surface Mining v.s. Solution  –   Depth of below surfa...
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
Shape of Ore Body
 Mineral deposits are on or near the surface of the Earth and are removed. There are 3 types of surface mines:  1. Open-...
Surface Strip open pit quarry
versus
 Minerals are located too deep for surface mining Shafts and passageways are dug into the ground to reach the ores.
Type of Ore Is the ore mineral soluble in water? Can the ore be melted?
When do you use Surface Mining? Large tonnage High rates of production Overburden (including rock) is thin
Strip Mining of CoalKansas Geological Survey
Open Pit Mining
Open-pit Mining
Strip Mining
Contour Strip Mining
Mountaintop Mining
machinery used in open-pit         mining
Drilling in pit
Crushing in pit
Loading ore in pit
Placer    mininghttp://www.homestead.com/theclaimpost/PlacerMiningMethods.html
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
Underground Mining
When do we mine underground? The ore deposit is deep Ore body is steep Grade is high enough to cover costs
Some types of underground mining Room and Pillar Cut and Fill Long wall (coal) Shrinkage Stoping Block Caving
Room and Pillar
Room and pillar
Room and Pillar mining   is commonly done in flat or gently dipping bedded    ore bodies   less ore is left behind in pi...
Cut and Fill
Cut-and-fill method
Cut and Fill mining   is a method of short hole mining used in steeply    dipping or irregular ore zones   The ore is mi...
Long Wall
Longwall mining   Longwall mining is a form of underground    coal mining where a long wall of coal is    mined in a sing...
Shrinkage Stoping
Shrinkage Stoping   is a short hole mining method which is    suitable for steeply dipping orebodies.   The method is si...
Block Cavingwww.ivanhoe-mines.com/s/Mongolia_ImageGallery
Block Caving   Block Caving is used to mine massive steeply    dipping orebodies (typically low grade) with    high friab...
Solution mininghttp://www.saltinstitute.org/images/saltdome.gif                                        http://web.ead.anl....
Solution Mining
BeneficiationMeans of separation of ore mineral from waste material (or gangue minerals)Also known as Liberation
What does it entail? Crushing and Grinding  – Ball mill or rod mill Separation  – Density (e.g. diamonds with a jig)  – ...
Refining the OreSmelting   removes the metal from the ore mineral by a   variety of waysHeap Leaching removes metal from t...
Iron in review Blast Furnace 3CO + Fe2O3     2 Fe + 3CO2 (gas) 4CO + Fe3O4      3Fe + 4CO2 (gas)
   Sắt được trích xuất ra từ các quặng của nó, chủ yếu từ    hêmatit (Fe2O3) và magnêtit (Fe3O4) bằng cách khử    với cac...
   Chất khử tạp chất được thêm vào để khử các tạp    chất có trong quặng (chủ yếu là điôxít silic cát và các    silicat k...
Sulphide Minerals Are sometimes roasted (pyrit: FeS2)  – Heated in air without melting to transform    sulphides to oxide...
Result at Kidd Creek
Heap Leaching In this process, typically done for Au. Weak solutions of NaCN (0.05%)  percolate through the material lea...
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien
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  • Bingham Pit
  • Bingham from the air: Google Earth
  • Photo I took at Bingham. 4 km in diameter 1 km in depth, at its zenith 400000 tons of rock per day
  • Tabular, shallow, strong
  • Steeping dipping ore
  • Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien

    1. 1. Mining Methods
    2. 2. E X P L O R A T IO N L O C A T E & D E F IN E D E P O S IT S E L E C T M IN IN G (M IL L IN G ) M E T H O D D E S IG N , S E L E C T S C A L E & T E C H N O L O G Y W ASTE CLOSURE IN F R A S T R U C T U R E HUM ANM ANAG EM ENT S E R V IC E S RESOURCES PLAN & SCHEDULE F E A S IB IL IT Y ? T E C H N IC A L E C O N O M IC A L NO YES E N V IR O N M E N T A L S O C IA L P O L IT IC A L NO S U S T A IN A B L E
    3. 3.  Mining is extracting ore or minerals from the ground An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economically valuable minerals that can be mined for a profit
    4. 4. Quặng sắt (hệ tầng sắt phân dải)Quặng vàng
    5. 5. Mining methods There are two  Underground main types of  Surface mines.  Placer 1) Surface Mining  Leaching/solution (Placer) 2) Subsurface Mining (Solution)
    6. 6. What determines the type of mining? Underground v.s. Surface Mining v.s. Solution – Depth of below surface – Size of the ore body – Shape of the ore body – Grade – Type of Ore
    7. 7. http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
    8. 8. Shape of Ore Body
    9. 9.  Mineral deposits are on or near the surface of the Earth and are removed. There are 3 types of surface mines: 1. Open-pit: removes large, near surface deposits of minerals such as gold and copper. Mined downward in layers 2. Quarries: stone, crushed rock, sand, gravel 3. Strip Mining: removing surface coal in strips up to 50 m wide x 1 Km long
    10. 10. Surface Strip open pit quarry
    11. 11. versus
    12. 12.  Minerals are located too deep for surface mining Shafts and passageways are dug into the ground to reach the ores.
    13. 13. Type of Ore Is the ore mineral soluble in water? Can the ore be melted?
    14. 14. When do you use Surface Mining? Large tonnage High rates of production Overburden (including rock) is thin
    15. 15. Strip Mining of CoalKansas Geological Survey
    16. 16. Open Pit Mining
    17. 17. Open-pit Mining
    18. 18. Strip Mining
    19. 19. Contour Strip Mining
    20. 20. Mountaintop Mining
    21. 21. machinery used in open-pit mining
    22. 22. Drilling in pit
    23. 23. Crushing in pit
    24. 24. Loading ore in pit
    25. 25. Placer mininghttp://www.homestead.com/theclaimpost/PlacerMiningMethods.html
    26. 26. http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
    27. 27. Underground Mining
    28. 28. When do we mine underground? The ore deposit is deep Ore body is steep Grade is high enough to cover costs
    29. 29. Some types of underground mining Room and Pillar Cut and Fill Long wall (coal) Shrinkage Stoping Block Caving
    30. 30. Room and Pillar
    31. 31. Room and pillar
    32. 32. Room and Pillar mining is commonly done in flat or gently dipping bedded ore bodies less ore is left behind in pillars the roof to collapse and fill in the stope
    33. 33. Cut and Fill
    34. 34. Cut-and-fill method
    35. 35. Cut and Fill mining is a method of short hole mining used in steeply dipping or irregular ore zones The ore is mined in horizontal or slightly inclined slices, and then filled with waste rock, sand or tailings. Either fill option may be consolidated with concrete, or left unconsolidated.
    36. 36. Long Wall
    37. 37. Longwall mining Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically 1–2 m thick). The longwall panel (the block of coal that is being mined) is typically 3–4 km long and 250–400 m wide.
    38. 38. Shrinkage Stoping
    39. 39. Shrinkage Stoping is a short hole mining method which is suitable for steeply dipping orebodies. The method is similar to cut and fill mining with the exception that after being blasted, broken ore is left in the stope where it is used to support the surrounding rock and as a platform from which to work. Only enough ore is removed from the stope to allow for drilling and blasting the next slice. The stope is emptied when all of the ore has been blasted.
    40. 40. Block Cavingwww.ivanhoe-mines.com/s/Mongolia_ImageGallery
    41. 41. Block Caving Block Caving is used to mine massive steeply dipping orebodies (typically low grade) with high friability. An undercut with haulage access is driven under the orebody, with "drawbells" excavated between the top of the haulage level and the bottom of the undercut. The drawbells serve as a place for caving rock to fall into. The orebody is drilled and blasted above the undercut, and the ore is removed via the haulage access. Due to the friability of the orebody the ore above the first blast caves and falls into the drawbells.
    42. 42. Solution mininghttp://www.saltinstitute.org/images/saltdome.gif http://web.ead.anl.gov/saltcaverns/desc/index.htm
    43. 43. Solution Mining
    44. 44. BeneficiationMeans of separation of ore mineral from waste material (or gangue minerals)Also known as Liberation
    45. 45. What does it entail? Crushing and Grinding – Ball mill or rod mill Separation – Density (e.g. diamonds with a jig) – Magnetic properties – Electric properties – Surface properties
    46. 46. Refining the OreSmelting removes the metal from the ore mineral by a variety of waysHeap Leaching removes metal from the ore by solution
    47. 47. Iron in review Blast Furnace 3CO + Fe2O3 2 Fe + 3CO2 (gas) 4CO + Fe3O4 3Fe + 4CO2 (gas)
    48. 48.  Sắt được trích xuất ra từ các quặng của nó, chủ yếu từ hêmatit (Fe2O3) và magnêtit (Fe3O4) bằng cách khử với cacbon trong lò luyện kim sử dụng luồng không khí nóng ở nhiệt độ khoảng 2000 °C. Trong lò luyện, quặng sắt, cacbon trong dạng than cốc , và các chất tẩy tạp chất như đá vôi được xếp ở phía trên của lò, luồng không khí nóng được đưa vào lò từ phía dưới. Than cốc phản ứng với ôxy trong luồng không khí tạo ra mônôxít cacbon: – 2 C + O2 → 2 CO Cacbon mônôxít khử quặng sắt (trong phương trình dưới đây là hêmatit) thành sắt nóng chảy, và nó trở thành điôxít cacbon: – 3 CO + Fe2O3 → 2 Fe + 3 CO2
    49. 49.  Chất khử tạp chất được thêm vào để khử các tạp chất có trong quặng (chủ yếu là điôxít silic cát và các silicat khác). Các chất khử tạp chất chính là đá vôi (cacbonat canxi) và đôlômit (cacbonat magiê). Các chất khử tạp chất khác có thể cho vào tùy theo các tạp chất có trong quặng. Trong sức nóng của lò luyện đá vôi bị chuyển thành vôi sống (CaO): – CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 Sau đó ôxít canxi kết hợp với điôxít silic tạo ra xỉ. – CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3 Xỉ nóng chảy trong lò luyện (điôxít silic thì không). Ở phần dưới của lò luyện, xỉ nóng chảy do nhẹ hơn nên nổi lên phía trên sắt nóng chảy. Các cửa lò có thể được mở để tháo xỉ hay sắt nóng chảy. Sắt khi nguội đi, tạo ra gang thô, còn xỉ có thể được sử dụng để làm đường hay để cải thiện các loại đất nông nghiệp nghèo khoáng chất.
    50. 50. Sulphide Minerals Are sometimes roasted (pyrit: FeS2) – Heated in air without melting to transform sulphides to oxides 4FeS2 + 11O2 = 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 2SO2 +  O2  = 2SO3 SO3 + H2O  = H2SO4   – Gives off H2S and SO2 – Then oxides processed like Fe
    51. 51. Result at Kidd Creek
    52. 52. Heap Leaching In this process, typically done for Au. Weak solutions of NaCN (0.05%) percolate through the material leaching out the desired metals. The solutions are collected and the metals are precipitated

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