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# Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien

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• Bingham Pit
• Bingham from the air: Google Earth
• Photo I took at Bingham. 4 km in diameter 1 km in depth, at its zenith 400000 tons of rock per day
• Tabular, shallow, strong
• Steeping dipping ore
• ### Chuong 2 khai thac va che bien

1. 1. Mining Methods
2. 2. E X P L O R A T IO N L O C A T E & D E F IN E D E P O S IT S E L E C T M IN IN G (M IL L IN G ) M E T H O D D E S IG N , S E L E C T S C A L E & T E C H N O L O G Y W ASTE CLOSURE IN F R A S T R U C T U R E HUM ANM ANAG EM ENT S E R V IC E S RESOURCES PLAN & SCHEDULE F E A S IB IL IT Y ? T E C H N IC A L E C O N O M IC A L NO YES E N V IR O N M E N T A L S O C IA L P O L IT IC A L NO S U S T A IN A B L E
3. 3.  Mining is extracting ore or minerals from the ground An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economically valuable minerals that can be mined for a profit
4. 4. Quặng sắt (hệ tầng sắt phân dải)Quặng vàng
5. 5. Mining methods There are two  Underground main types of  Surface mines.  Placer 1) Surface Mining  Leaching/solution (Placer) 2) Subsurface Mining (Solution)
6. 6. What determines the type of mining? Underground v.s. Surface Mining v.s. Solution – Depth of below surface – Size of the ore body – Shape of the ore body – Grade – Type of Ore
7. 7. http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
8. 8. Shape of Ore Body
9. 9.  Mineral deposits are on or near the surface of the Earth and are removed. There are 3 types of surface mines: 1. Open-pit: removes large, near surface deposits of minerals such as gold and copper. Mined downward in layers 2. Quarries: stone, crushed rock, sand, gravel 3. Strip Mining: removing surface coal in strips up to 50 m wide x 1 Km long
10. 10. Surface Strip open pit quarry
11. 11. versus
12. 12.  Minerals are located too deep for surface mining Shafts and passageways are dug into the ground to reach the ores.
13. 13. Type of Ore Is the ore mineral soluble in water? Can the ore be melted?
14. 14. When do you use Surface Mining? Large tonnage High rates of production Overburden (including rock) is thin
15. 15. Strip Mining of CoalKansas Geological Survey
16. 16. Open Pit Mining
17. 17. Open-pit Mining
18. 18. Strip Mining
19. 19. Contour Strip Mining
20. 20. Mountaintop Mining
21. 21. machinery used in open-pit mining
22. 22. Drilling in pit
23. 23. Crushing in pit
26. 26. http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/images/minmethd.gif
27. 27. Underground Mining
28. 28. When do we mine underground? The ore deposit is deep Ore body is steep Grade is high enough to cover costs
29. 29. Some types of underground mining Room and Pillar Cut and Fill Long wall (coal) Shrinkage Stoping Block Caving
30. 30. Room and Pillar
31. 31. Room and pillar
32. 32. Room and Pillar mining is commonly done in flat or gently dipping bedded ore bodies less ore is left behind in pillars the roof to collapse and fill in the stope
33. 33. Cut and Fill
34. 34. Cut-and-fill method
35. 35. Cut and Fill mining is a method of short hole mining used in steeply dipping or irregular ore zones The ore is mined in horizontal or slightly inclined slices, and then filled with waste rock, sand or tailings. Either fill option may be consolidated with concrete, or left unconsolidated.
36. 36. Long Wall
37. 37. Longwall mining Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically 1–2 m thick). The longwall panel (the block of coal that is being mined) is typically 3–4 km long and 250–400 m wide.
38. 38. Shrinkage Stoping
39. 39. Shrinkage Stoping is a short hole mining method which is suitable for steeply dipping orebodies. The method is similar to cut and fill mining with the exception that after being blasted, broken ore is left in the stope where it is used to support the surrounding rock and as a platform from which to work. Only enough ore is removed from the stope to allow for drilling and blasting the next slice. The stope is emptied when all of the ore has been blasted.
40. 40. Block Cavingwww.ivanhoe-mines.com/s/Mongolia_ImageGallery
41. 41. Block Caving Block Caving is used to mine massive steeply dipping orebodies (typically low grade) with high friability. An undercut with haulage access is driven under the orebody, with "drawbells" excavated between the top of the haulage level and the bottom of the undercut. The drawbells serve as a place for caving rock to fall into. The orebody is drilled and blasted above the undercut, and the ore is removed via the haulage access. Due to the friability of the orebody the ore above the first blast caves and falls into the drawbells.