School-to-Prison Pipeline: How perceived experiences with teachers lead students to street behavior inside schools 

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This is a secondary data analysis on the Wilmington Street PAR project (or The People's Report), a larger street ethnographic study organized to examine physical violence in Wilmington, DE. This …

This is a secondary data analysis on the Wilmington Street PAR project (or The People's Report), a larger street ethnographic study organized to examine physical violence in Wilmington, DE. This analysis explored attitudes toward and experiences with education or school. Specifically, this study explored attitudes toward teachers and how such attitudes informed notions of school and community violence amongst street identified Black men and women.

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  • 1. SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE HOW PERCEIVED EXPERIENCES WITH TEACHERS LEAD STUDENTS TO STREET BEHAVIOR INSIDE SCHOOLS Presenter: Ashlee Johnson University of Delaware
  • 2. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE TEACHERS • 85% – 90% of all school teachers who educate Black students are middle class White women • Between 1999 and 2000, 135,000 teachers were physically attacked by a student • From 1999 to 2003, annually, an estimated 183,000 teachers were victims of non-fatal crimes at school. (Yasser A Payne and Tara M. Brown, 2010) (Non-fatal violence Against Teachers, 2009)
  • 3. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE SCHOOLS • Drop/push out rates rank higher for Black males than all teenage males combined (13.1% vs 10.9%); • 72% of Black male drop/push outs are unemployed either because they were incarcerated or could not find work; • 19% - 30% of Black students have brought a weapon to school at one time. (Yasser A Payne and Tara M. Brown, 2010)
  • 4. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE SOCIETY • In 2002, African American boys made up 16% of the juvenile population, but almost 30% of the juvenile delinquency caseload; • In 2006, about 25% of boys reported they carried a handgun by the age of 17 while 11% reported they belonged to a gang; & • Arrests for females increased 5.1% from 2004 – 2008. Arrests for males increased 0.6% from 2004 – 2008. (Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund, M. 2006) (Crime in America.net. 2010)
  • 5. LITERATURE REVIEW • Student-Teacher relationship • Teacher Expectation Theory • “Acting White” thesis (Debra Hooks and Maja Miskovic, 2012) (Yasser A Payne and Tara M. Brown, 2010) (Carol A Mullen and R Lynne Patrick, 2012)
  • 6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • What key experiences shape negative interactions between students and teachers? • To what extent do negative interactions with teachers occur as a function of gender?
  • 7. SITES OF RESILIENCE (PAYNE & BROWN, 2010) • Street-identified students view schools as hostile environments; & • Street identity was found to be a coping mechanism or site of resilience inside school spaces. • Street identified Black boys were found to have educational aspirations, which profoundly challenged the longstanding ”acting white” thesis Payne, Yasser A., and Tara M. Brown (2010). The Educational Experiences of Street- Life-Oriented Black Boys: How Black Boys Use Street Life as a Site of Resilience in High School. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 26, 3, 316-338.
  • 8. WHAT DOES STREET LIFE MEAN? • Street Ideology – centered on personal & economic survival. • Set of Activities • Bonding activities extends to joking,“playing the dozens”, hanging on the “corner” or “block”, rhyming (or rapping), playing basketball amongst each other to name a few activities; and • Illegal activities (e. g. armed robbery, selling drugs, engaging in physical violence, etc.) generally employed to confront the effects of economic poverty.
  • 9. WILMINGTON STREET PAR FAMILY
  • 10. WHAT IS PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH? • Participatory Action Research (PAR) projects includes on the research team, members of the population under study. Once such members are identified, they then are offered the opportunity to participate in all phases of the research project (e. g. theoretical framing, literature review, analysis, publication, presentation, monetary compensation, etc.); & • PAR projects require an social justice based response to be organized in response to the data collected by the study. Research + Social Activism = PAR
  • 11. PROJECT DESIGN Community Sample (age range) Community Survey Packet Individual Interviews Group Interviews 18 – 21 173 12 1 (5 participants) 22 – 29 205 12 1 (5 participants) 30 – 35 142 12 1 (5 participants) 41 – 53 ---- ----- 1 (7 participants) United Brothers of 9th Street
  • 12. N = 520
  • 13. N = 520
  • 14. N = 520
  • 15. N = 481
  • 16. N = 507
  • 17. N = 503
  • 18. N = 478
  • 19. N = 463
  • 20. PROJECT DESIGN SECONDARY QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS Age Range Individual Interviews Dual Interviews Group Interviews 16 - 26 12 -- 1 (3 participants) 27 - 33 9 2 (4 participants) 2 (6 participants) 34 - 40 5 1 (2 participants) 1 (5 participants)
  • 21. QUALITATIVE CODING 1. Student-Induced: Academic Preparation 26% negative 30% negative 2. Student-Induced: Home Environment 9% positive 2% positive 3. Student-Induced: Personal Accountability 22% negative 9% positive 4. Teacher-Induced Student Negative Behavior 43% negative 13% positive *some male/female responses overlap categories & account for inconsistent totals
  • 22. GENDERED THEMES • School Violence/Street Activity – interpersonal violence, substance abuse, involvement with criminal justice system; • Structural Inequality- perceived structural inequality within the school and society; & • Personal Situations – individual or personal level challenges identified by students that effect schooling experiences.
  • 23. MALES • School violence/Street activity – 10/29 (34%) • Structural Inequality – 22/29 (76%) • Personal Situations – 10/29 (34%)
  • 24. SCHOOL VIOLENCE Darryl: What does… a child that has a mother on drugs or a father that's not around, what does he act like in school? Aaron (29): Every case is different. I mean, sometimes you have these kids that are all withdrawn and just don't want to associate with anybody. … other times you have these kids who want to lash out with fighting everybody… they want to fight them because they don't know what love is. They don't know what affection is… just think.. if we could say to our kids… (including) kids we don't know, “How you doing brother? I love you.’’ I mean, just think about how that would change a person's perspective.
  • 25. SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE • Byron Teller (18) “…school taking too long so I'm gonna be in these streets, I been in the streets.” –street activity • Prada (39) “it was me, I was too hyper, hardheaded, wasn’t really focused on school right then. I was ready to get to the streets” –personal situations • Jerome Sefus (31) “Uh, I started, I started doing things that I know I shouldn't have been doing out here, started hustling” -street activity
  • 26. FEMALES • School violence/Street Activity – 3/17 (18%) • Structural Inequality – 12/17 (71%) • Personal Situations – 10/17 (59%)
  • 27. STRUCTURAL INEQUALITY Darryl: …. If you had the choice… (in terms of race) what kind of school would you send your child to? Dionne (29): White. Darryl: Why? Dionne (29): 'Cause I know they are going to get a better education… the curriculum is different. … compared to the charter school my kids go to now… the other charter schools around, the curriculum is totally different. They (need to ) go to … a college charter school (or charter school recognized by a quality university). Darryl: Do you think that the people who are in charge of providing children with an education know that there's a difference in these schools? Dionne (29): Um hum (yes). Darryl: So why do you think they allow one (school) to operate below the other? Dionne (29): Politics.
  • 28. WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED? • Gender differences • Structural inequality • Most participants spoke about a negative relationship with teachers
  • 29. THANK YOU! • Dr. Yasser Payne, Black American Studies Department, University of Delaware • University of Delaware Undergraduate Research Program • Ms. Meg Meiman & Dr. Lynnette Overby • 2012 Summer Scholars Research Group • University of Delaware N.U.C.L.E.U.S. Program