Employment and The Streets: How street identified Black youth and young adults understand notions of work
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Employment and The Streets: How street identified Black youth and young adults understand notions of work

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This is a secondary data analysis on the Wilmington Street PAR project (or The People's Report), a larger street ethnographic study organized to examine physical violence in Wilmington, DE. This ...

This is a secondary data analysis on the Wilmington Street PAR project (or The People's Report), a larger street ethnographic study organized to examine physical violence in Wilmington, DE. This analysis specifically explored attitudes and experiences with employment among street identified Black men and women.

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Employment and The Streets: How street identified Black youth and young adults understand notions of work Employment and The Streets: How street identified Black youth and young adults understand notions of work Presentation Transcript

  • EMPLOYMENT AND THE STREETS: HOW STREET IDENTIFIED BLACK YOUTH AND YOUNG ADULTS UNDERSTAND NOTIONS OF WORK Presented by: Hillary Khan University of Delaware
  • NATIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE National average for June was 7.6% As of June, Black unemployment was 13.7%  Black men face 15.0% unemployment rates  Black women face 12.8% unemployment rates ( J o n e s , 2 01 3 ; U S C e n s u s B u r e a u , 2 010 )
  • LOCAL DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE  58.0% of Wilmington’s population are Black;  Unemployment rate for Wilmington, DE is 6.8%;  The unemployment rate among Blacks is 9.3%;  Black men experience 10.3%  Black women is= 8.5%  Eastside’s average unemployment rate is 49.9%;&  Southbridge’s unemployment rate is 49.2% (U. S. Census Bureau, 2010; Garrison and Kervick, 2005)
  • RESEARCH QUESTION How do street-identified Black youth and young adults frame notions of employment as a function of gender?
  • WHAT DOES STREET LIFE MEAN? (PAYNE, 2011)  Street Ideology – centered on personal & economic survival. (1) Passed on by older Black male generation; and (2) More connected to the code or the better a person understands the ideology the more resilient a person is considered by men in the streets.  Set of Activities (1) Bonding activities; and (2) Illegal activities
  • SITES OF RESILIENCE THEORETICAL MODEL (BROWN, PAYNE, GREEN & DRESSNER, 2010; PAYNE, 2001 , 2005, 2008, 2011) FUNDAMENTAL PRISM INDIVIDUAL CONDITIONS Phenomenology SOCIAL STRUCTRAL CONDITIONS Relational Coping History LOCAL GENERAL CONCEPTUAL PRISM PSYCHOLOGICAL S.O.R. Street Life PHYSICAL S.O.R. Social Injustice Social Structural Systems
  • WHAT IS PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH? (I.) Participatory Action Research (PAR) projects includes on the research team, members of the population under study. Once such members are identified, they then are offered the opportunity to participate in all phases of the research project (e. g. theoretical framing, literature review, analysis, publication, presentation, monetary compensation, etc.); & (II.) PAR projects require a social justice based response to be organized in response to the data collected by the study. Research + Social Activism = PAR
  • WILMINGTON STREET PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH FAMILY
  • SOUTHBRIDGE AND EASTSIDE
  • BLACK POPULATIONS IN THE EASTSIDE AND SOUTHBRIDGE Total Blacks in The Eastside – 5, 003  Blacks between 18-34 in the Eastside – 1, 098  The Eastside, overall makes up about 7% of Wilm. population Total Blacks in Southbridge – 2,052  Blacks between 18-34 in Southbridge – 486  Southbridge, overall makes up about 2% of Wilm. Population (Por ter, 2010; U. S. Census Bureau, 2000)
  • QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY
  • SAMPLE SIZE = 504
  • SAMPLE SIZE = 504
  • EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC WELL-BEING
  • EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC WELL-BEING
  • QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY Age Range Individual Interviews Dual Interviews Group Interviews 18 – 26 13 1 (1 participant) 1 (3 participants) 27 – 33 7 2 (7 participants) 2 (6 participants) 34 – 40 4 2 (3 participants) 1 (5 participants)
  • CODING SCHEME Employment Core Code Sub Codes Attitudes towards employment (1) Positive Attitude (2) Negative Attitude Available employment opportunities (1) Competition with Immigrants (2) Summer Youth Employment (3) Education Street motivation (1) Economic opportunity (2) Peer Influence (3) Home Environment
  • POSITIVE ATTITUDE Rennie (35) : “I mean, like, even at temp agencies they'll tell you […] we got jobs but if we got 12 people that pull from our agency you might only be eligible to work for two of them, and we're full with them right now. So I mean, that's everywhere I go. […] I clean carpets. I bought a carpet machine from Home Depot. The real little industrial thing. It fits in the backseat of my car. I put my fliers up all across New Castle County. Because I go in there real calm and real humble, because I know that nobody else is gonna give me a job, I make my own jobs.”
  • AS A FUNCTION OF GENDER  Positive attitudes of women:  Speak from their personal experiences, inopportunity causes unemployment, feel most men are less likely to seek employment  Positive attitudes of men:  Includes the community in their perspective, lack of resources and criminal backgrounds cause unemployment, big motivators for others to work
  • AS A FUNCTION OF GENDER Negative attitudes of women  Mostly refer to men’s unwillingness to work – men seen as lazy, they argued that they would rather engage in street life Negative attitudes of men  Typically noted how others besides themselves or immediate friends were engaging in street for trivial reasons
  • AVAILABLE JOB OPPORTUNITIES Factors that influence opportunity or inopportunity: Competition with Immigration Summer Youth Employment Education
  • AS A FUNCTION OF GENDER Competition with immigration Women: no responses Men: reference the community’s lack of social cohesion as a reason why there are no longer Black-owned businesses; consistently note that foreign business owners do not hire Black residents
  • AS A FUNCTION OF GENDER  Summer youth employment  men and women view summer youth employment the same—that there are not enough job opportunities for youth.  Education  Women: education is the gateway to better jobs, generational and peer influence leads to drop outs  Men: strongly support vocational schools, parents and teachers are both to blame, as well as inequalities in public education funding
  • GOING TO THE STREETS AS A FUNCTION OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNIT Y  Contributing factors to the participation of youth and young adults in the streets: Economic survival Peer influence Home environment
  • HOME ENVIRONMENT Aaron (29): “It makes it harder to go to school when people don't care in your household if you go to school or not. It makes it harder to go to school. It makes, it, it makes it, I mean, I was fortunate because I had a mother to say to me you goin' to […] school. I was fortunate enough because I had a mother that cared.”
  • AS A FUNCTION OF GENDER Peer Influence:  Women: few positive role models, few positive examples of upright residents, the need to fit in and make friends  Men: few positive role models, seeking love from peers because of poor family structure, low selfesteem Home Environment:  Women: singe-parent homes, absent fathers  Men: single-parent homes, absent fathers, addicted mothers, no love and respect, pressure to provide
  • WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? “Terrible schools, absent parents, racism, the decline in blue collar jobs and a subculture that glorifies swagger over work have all been cited as causes of the deepening ruin of black youths. Scholars — and the young men themselves — agree that all of these issues must be addressed.”  Eric Eckholm (March 20, 2006). Plight Deepens for Black Men, Study Warns. New York Times. What kind of study needs to come next?
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Dr. Yasser Payne  Summer Scholars undergraduate research program  Steve Beighley, my group leader, and fellow group members