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MPLS Presentation - Geek humor

MPLS Presentation - Geek humor



This was a technology presentation for a college class that included major themes from a few of several books read during the semester. Books included Remix (Lessig), The Future of Work, The Laws of ...

This was a technology presentation for a college class that included major themes from a few of several books read during the semester. Books included Remix (Lessig), The Future of Work, The Laws of Simplicity, and The Pirates Dilemma.



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  • Who was told the OSI model isnt important? <br /> They lied. <br /> <br />
  • Must manually map DLCI of PVC to an IP address. <br /> <br /> Must also manually enter the network of the PVC in to routing protocol. <br /> <br />
  • PVC&#x2019;s were primitive VPN&#x2019;s because of virtual circuits within physical domains. <br />
  • T/DS speeds related - one American the other European <br /> Even with 100 Mbps interface, had to provision it to max T-3 Speeds <br />
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  • Nothing to do with copyright <br />
  • Collection of working groups <br /> WG establish a memorandum published by IETF describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems. <br />
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MPLS Presentation - Geek humor MPLS Presentation - Geek humor Presentation Transcript

  • NextGen Networking I hope you like my little story Thomas Jones INLS 697: Spring ’09 School of Information and Library Science, UNC Chapel Hill
  • NextGen History APPLICATION • PRESENTATION Setting the stage - the OSI model (with Frame Relay) SESSION • Physical: RS-449, V.35, X.21, RJ-45 (interfaces) TRANSPORT • Data Link: Encapsulation (FR), NETWORK DLCI, and LMI (Cisco, ANSI, q. 933-a) DATA LINK • Network: IP address mapping PHYSCIAL
  • NextGen History APPLICATION • Configuration example (purged) PRESENTATION interface serial 0/0 SESSION ip address encapsulation frame-relay TRANSPORT frame-relay lmi-type cisco frame-relay interface-dlci 150 NETWORK frame-relay map ip 150 DATA LINK router rip network PHYSCIAL
  • NextGen History • Frame Relay • Circuits manually built with a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) • DLCI’s comprise a single Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC) • PVC’s = Primitive VPN’s
  • NextGen History • Frame Relay’s problems • It sucks/ed • Tracked PVC DLCI/IP mapping with spreadsheets/ databases • Speed limited at T-3/DS 3 speeds (45 Mbps)
  • NextGen & Transition • Pre-Internet Implosion • Internet divided by 0 > dot com bust • Many protocols: ATM, SONET (PoS), IP, Token Ring, Frame Relay • Novell OWND • Post-Internet Implosion • Convergence • Emergence of Ethernet and IP only usage in networks • Integration problems w/acquisitions network and system upgrades, etc etc.
  • NextGen = MultiProtocol Label Switching • Ipsilon Networks (Oct 1994) • MPLS began as “IP Switching” • ATM based, nothing more • No market penetration - bought by Nokia in 1997 • Cisco • Known as “Tag Switching”, later became “Label Switching” • Applied concept to IP networks • Proprietary at first, handed over to IETF for Open Standardization • “Martini” Draft (RFC 4906 and 4447)
  • NextGen = MultiProtocol Label Switching • Focuses on layer 2 to create a “pseudowire” - uses Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) • Packets “switched” (data plane) through the network • Forwarding decisions made on hop to hop basis for services (not for TE) • Juniper • “Kompella” Draft (RFC ???) • Focuses on layer 3 to create tunnels - uses RSVP • Forwarding decisions are made on end to end basis for services
  • NextGen = MultiProtocol Label Switching • Vach Kompella (Alcatel-Lucent, Cisco) • Kireeti Kompella (Juniper) • Both vendors technologies are supported on each others MPLS implementations
  • UNDERSTANDING MPLS • Cisco Express Forwarding or Control Plane/Data Plane • MPLS Shim Header • Applications/Services
  • How It Works Routing exchange IP Routing Protocols RIP/ EIGRP/OSPF/BGP • Routing exchange with other routers IP Routing Table • RP’s learn routes to destinations - put in IPRT • MPLS protocol accesses IPRT Labels Binded to IP's MPLS Label MPLS Routing Label Exhange via LDP Information Base Control • All IP routes binded with a label Control Plane in a router • Label binded routes then put in LIB • Packets now “switched” through the network Forwarding Information Base (FIB) • No need for L3 lookups, or ARP requests Label FIB (LFIB) • * IPRT copies to FIB in the case that the next hop Data Plane in a router has no label (customer site) - this is CEF
  • NextGen Network Label Insertion Label Insertion and removal and removal CE1 CE2 PE1 PE2 Cisco 3845 Cisco 7206 MPLS Cloud P1 P2 Cisco 3845 Cisco 3845 Hub with laptop Cisco 3845 Cisco 3845 for packet sniffing Label Switching in the cloud Egress Ingress
  • MPLS SHIM HEADER •Label - This field stores the label value. This value can be between 0 and 2^20th - 1. The first 16 of these labels ( 0 - 15) are exempted from they are reserved for specific functions known as label operations. •Experimental (EXP) - 3 bits; This field is used specifically for Quality of Service implementation. •Bottom of Stack (S) - 1 bit; This identifies if the particular label in the stack is the bottom or top label. A stack is a collection of labels on top of the packet. •Time to Live (TTL) - 8 bits; This field performs the same function as the TTL field found in an IP header. Its main function is to avoid a packet being stuck in a routing loop. If a routing loop occurs and no TTL is present the packet loops forever. If the TTL reaches 0, the packet is discarded.
  • MPLS Applications •MPLS VPN’s •Route target out must match route target in •IPv6 •Self explanatory •Any Transport over MPLS •Can carry ATM/SONET/Token Ring/FR •Quality of Service •Self explanatory •Traffic Engineering •Uses Hop Count, Load, Delay, Bandwidth, Reliability, Cost to create dynamic tunnels, of specified minimum bandwidth reservations for the traffic flow.
  • MPLS SIMPLICITY • Law #1: Thoughtful reduction • Simplification of routing, services • Law #2: Organization makes a system of many appear fewer • MPLS Application • Law #5 Differences • Complexity of configuration - just google it • Law #8: In simplicity we trust • Managing services based on labels
  • MPLS REMIX • Remix of the OSI model and Frame Relay • Ipsilon Networks “IP switching” technology • Juniper and Cisco accepting each others work • Multiple RFC standards created • Everybody wins
  • Future of Work • IETF’s Role in Standardization • Working Groups •Composed of experts •Propose an Internet Draft •Turns in to/generates an RFC •Assigned Serial Number •Standardization Process (long and complicated) • Collaboration, not measuring contest • Efficiency of business
  • The End I hope you liked my little story