Uploaded on

INST theories, learning environment, and learning motivation models.

INST theories, learning environment, and learning motivation models.

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,833
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Source: Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Comments: Point out pictures of various theorists. Introduce that theories focused on the physiology and learning of men have evolved and emerged over the years because theorists are always searching for a lasting “persisting change in human performance…” 
  • Learning is: (1) A result of experience and interaction with the world, (2) An individual process, and (3) Characterized by the processes shared by and affecting the members of a groupSource: Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Comments: Describe how (3) has recently emerged and is a new way of viewing learning as measured by a group instead of strictly individual. – Believe that individuality is best measured when “levels of community have been factored out” (Lemke as quoted by Reiser & Dempsey. (2007) p. 37). -Consistent improvement in learning performance can be measured by group of individuals sharing a common purpose…etc.. 2 Major Theoretical approaches to learning: (1) Objectivism or directed instruction (2) Constructivist or inquiry-based learning Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 
  • Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Comments: Objectivists support standardized tests; they believe that learning is transmitted knowledge and that learning should be teacher directed (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p. 34). Objectivist theories support that learning is systematic, behavioral and can be controlled. 
  • Comments: The two I find most in line with my philosophical beliefs are Behaviorism and Cognition-Information Processing, and therefore, they will be addressed in further detail in this presentation.Sources: Roblyer, M.,& Doering A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Skinner is called by some “the most influential psychologist of the 20th century.” --Eggen & Kauchak (2004)Source: Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2004). Educational Psychology: Windows on classrooms (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merril/Prentice Hall.Based on the belief that “learning can be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 37).Source: Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.Roblyer, M.,& Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Comments: Skinner is called by some “the most influential psychologist of the 20th century” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2004, p. 200) -Skinner built upon Pavlov’s work with dogs and salivary stimulation. -It can be applied to Instructional Technology (IT) in that Designers in the field need to recognize various stimuli and results to produce desired learning results.-Behaviorism is characterized by antecedents or cues in an individual’s environment that signal appropriate behavior (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p.37). And by negative and positive reinforcements
  • Source: Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2006). An overview of the behavioral perspective. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behsys/behsys.html Comments: The Mind is like a Black Box that we can only observe from the outside to know what is occurring on the inside. -Contiguity -- any stimulus and response connected in time and/or space will tend to be associated (a baseball player wearing a certain pair of socks on the day he hits three home runs; a student making a good grade on a test after trying several different study techniques)- Classical (Respondent) Conditioning -- association of stimuli (an antecedent stimulus will reflexively elicit an innate emotional or physiological response; another stimulus will elicit an orienting response)-Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning -- connection of emitted behavior and its consequences (reinforcement and punishment)
  • Comment: This is my personal belief based on experience and studies I have done relating to multicultural teaching in the classroom.Comment: Although, Behaviorism is based on reinforcements and antecedents for the individual, many teachers or instructional technologists apply this theory to general groups (e.g. students get praise or an entertaining graphic for correct answers).(Roblyer 2006, p, 36)Source: Roblyer, M.,& Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Behaviorism is not always the most effective way to motivate or transmit knowledge and learning to pupils. -Positive reinforcements for one student are negative for another (build one up while pushing one down)-Commonly perceived positive reinforcements are not accurate for all students (culture, and background can affect reactions to positive reinforcements) Source: This is my personal belief- based on reading on multicultural education and on teaching in the classroom. Comment: Personal story- Yard stick painted green, yellow, and red used by 1st grade teacher to measure levels of good and bad behavior in class. The stick was meant to be a positive reinforcement for those who were good. If you were in the green for a certain amount of time, you would receive rewards. I felt like no matter how hard I tried, she would never move my marker from red. I felt discriminated and hopeless at ever achieving green status. I did not feel the system was fair, and therefore, it affected not only my behavior, but also my learning in that class. I did not care whether I got “caught” at acting up. What was a positive reinforcement for some, was a negative reinforcement for me.Example 2: Auditory praise is usually considered a positive reinforcement to do better in school. Students in low-income schools may desireto appear “cool” in the eyes of their friends by choosing to disobey authority including teachers in order to gain respect in gangs or other associations. A compliment from a teacher of a job well done in front of one’s peers in such a scenario would be a negative reinforcement for that student to want to excel in class and please their authorities. Another is example is a shy kid who prefers to do a mediocre job than to excel and be made an example in class.
  • Information Processing- changes perception of mind as a black box Source:Roblyer, M.,& Doering A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. The Cognitive Processes Classes. (1997). History of cognitive psychology. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/cognitiv.htm.  Comments: “Because many people found Skinner’s ‘learning as behavior shaped concepts’ insufficient to guide instruction, the first cognitive learning theorists began to hypothesize processes inside the brain that allow human beings to learn and remember” (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p.36).- “According to Anderson (1995), cognitive psychology first emerged in the two decades between 1950 and 1970. The modern development of cognitive psychology was due to the WWII focus on research on human performance and attention, developments in computer science, especially those in artificial intelligence, and the renewal of interest in the field of linguistics” (The Cognitive Processes Classes, 1997). Stimuli= Inputs, Behavior=Outputs, Information Processing= what happens in between  Source: Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.) (p. 38).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Source: McLeod, S.A.(2007) Simply Psychology [On-line]. UK. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/  
  • Guidelines for enhancing attention, encoding, and storage processes include- Gagné hierarchical “bottoms up” approach(e.g. multiplication skills before long division)-Ausbel’s “top down” approach “Advance organizers” give mental framework  Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching (p. 37). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Comments: I find both Gagné and Ausubel’s approaches to this theory essential for learning. I think that it is important to teach including both of these theories. Without bottom knowledge one cannot learn up and likewise, without understanding the big picture, it is difficult for one to grasp difficult concepts.
  • Source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy c/o Paul Thagard. 2002. Cognitive Science (paragraph 7). Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cognitive-science/ Comments: Personally, I cannot recommend Cognition-Information Processing as alone as abest practice for ID because of the following:1. The emotion challenge: Cognitive science neglects the important role of emotions in human thinking. 2. The consciousness challenge: Cognitive science ignores the importance of consciousness in human thinking. 3. The world challenge: Cognitive science disregards the significant role of physical environments in human thinking. 4. The social challenge: Human thought is inherently social in ways that cognitive science ignores. 5. The dynamical systems challenge: The mind is a dynamical system, not a computational system. 6. The mathematics challenge: Mathematical results show that human thinking cannot be computational in the standard sense, so the brain must operate differently, perhaps as a quantum computer. -Although, I do feel that it is an important theory and that it represents a lot of how objectivism had been used in classrooms to date.
  • Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Comments: Constructivists believe that knowledge is constructed not transmitted, students should be allowed to explore different ways of showing what they have learned, learning is student centered, not teacher driven (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p. 34)
  • “One of the weightiest problems with which the philosophy of education has to cope is the method of keeping a proper balance between the informal and the formal, the incidental and the intentional, modes of education.” – John DeweySource: Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. N.Y.: MacMillan.“Dewey believed that education should be a way of helping individuals understand their culture and should develop their relationship to and unique roles in society” (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p.38)Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Dewey advocated a merging of “absolutism” and experimentalism” encouraging the combination of objectivist and constructivist theories and views (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p. 40)Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Comments: As I will discuss later, I believe that there is not one theory that represents best practice in ID. I agree with Dewey as he advocated for combing different approaches to meet the needs of learning.Shift to viewing a person and an environment in terms of their contributions to an activity rather than as separately described thingsSource:Bredo, Eric. (1994). Cognitivism, Situated Cognition, and Deweyian Pragmatism. Retrieved from: http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/94_docs/BREDO.HTMComments:I disagree with the view of the human brain as a computer that is a thing to be manipulated. I understand that there are certain stimuli and information processes that are essential to learning and sustaining behavior, however I like how Dewey introduces the concept that people and learning is most effectively measured by contributions to society. He reminds us that people are not just things to be observed, but that they benefit from hands-on experiences. He also teaches that in every learning situation is unique and deserves to be evaluated independent of other learning situations. I would add that each student is unique and should be evaluated independent of other students’ performance.
  • “Piaget referred to himself as a ‘genetic epistemologist’” (Roblyer & Doering, (2006), p. 40)-Children undergo 4 stages of learning-When they confront unknowns, they experience disequilibrium; they respond with assimilation or accommodation.Comments:Piaget’s theory is important to understand as an educator because it outlines how learning develops through childhood and the different barriers that exist, as well as how children mold new experiences to existing knowledge.Disequilibrium leads to assimilation (fitting new concepts into one’s views) or accommodation (changing one’s views to accommodate new knowledge).Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.“Intelligence is an adaptation…To say that intelligence is a particular instance of biological adaptation is thus to suppose that it is essentially an organization and that its function is to structure the universe just as the organism structures its immediate environment" (Piaget, 1963, pp. 3-4).Source: Piaget, J. (1936, 1963) The origins of intelligence in children. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.Comment: Even if you do not plan to teach children, it is important to understand how learning in those you will teach developed and was adapted.
  • Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Comments: Sensorimotor-exploration through senses and motor activity Preoperational-development of speech and symbolic activities, numerical abilities, increased self-control, and ability to delay gratification Concrete Operational-increase abstract reasoning, can generalize from concrete experiences, and can do conservation tasks Formal Operations-form and test hypothesis, organize information, and reason scientifically
  • Even though Piaget’s theory focuses primarily on children, it is important that educators instructing students of all ages understand the fundamental process of educational development.Source: This is my personal belief as acquired from studying psychology and teachingSome theorists, like Jerome Bruner, have advocated for intervention at each stage to enhance learning and manipulate the developmental process. Research findings however, have shown mixed results (Roblyer and Doering, 2006, p. 61). Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • “Howard Gardner has established himself as one of the world's foremost authorities on the topics of intelligence, creativity, leadership, professional responsibility, and the arts.“ –Jonathan Plucker (2007)Source: Plucker, J. A. (Ed.). (2003). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~intellComments: I identify most with this theory because I believe it is the most effective constructivist theory addressing the individual learning code of students.
  • Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Source: Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Source: Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: Inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago: Open Court.Comments:A learning environment in many ways determines whether the project succeeds or fails. I feel that finding the right combination of design methods that create a healthy learning environment for your pupils is essential to achieve sustained behavior change and effective learning. Within the next section of my presentation I will discuss how the psychological theories I have already addressed create different learning environments.
  • Structured to learning of knowledge and skills deemed important by teachers and/or subject matter expertsEmphasis on the product (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007, p. 57)Source: Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.Comments: The best example of this kind of an environment is Skinner’s positive and negative reinforcements to achieve a necessary outcome. When used in an instructional setting, standardized tests and teacher driven curriculum are used to achieve learning.
  • Comments: I recognize that it is important to use Objectivist theories in certain circumstances in order to reach specific goals. In my opinion, in order to teach effectively, objectivist methods to some degree should be used in all learning environments in order to maintain consistency and a clear objective. However, for the purposes of this presentation, I would like to focus on a different learning environment that I feel reflects an emphasis on expanding and increasing knowledge to meet the learning demands of a progressively more technological and innovative era. I also feel that this learning environment which I will focus on is redesigning how information is being acquired in the classroom.
  • “a place where learners may work together and support each other as they use a variety of tools and information in their pursuit of learning goals and problem-solving activities” (Wilson, 1995, p. 27).Source: Wilson, B. (1995). Metaphors for instruction: Why we talk about learning environments. Educational Technology, 35(5), 25-30.Comments: I strongly agree with this learning environment, because I feel that working together is essential to eliminating major errors and producing the best product. I also feel that it is important to explore new ideas and to rely on a variety of tools and methods to reach a set goal.Process based – still achieving a goalQuestion driven – encourages new thoughts and complete understanding of principlesCyclical in natureContext is the principal organizer, not content – did you understand what is being taught not, did you remember all the specific points and terms (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 58)Source: Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Comments: I choose to focus more on this environment because I feel that Constructivist learning environments are becoming more prevalent in our society. A good example is Second Life in which social interaction and collaborative learning is the center of how information is being acquired. Also, with the enhancement of computer animation and virtual reality, we are seeing more teaching being applied to real-work scenarios and hand-on experiences. Lastly, we are seeing that students and average the general public are gaining more opportunities to ask questions and raise a voice in what is being taught as well as have an influence on the context of that teaching.
  • Comments:There are many Constructivist models, but I choose to focus on just a few: Cooperative learningProject-based learning (PBL), and Reciprocal learning.
  • Source: Wilson, B. G., & Cole, P. (1991). Cognitive dissonance as an instructional variable. Ohio Media Spectrum, 43 (4), 11-21.
  • Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. Source:Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. Comments: Group work helps to involve all students and to increase motivation to participate.
  • Source: Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.Comments:Though this method is not a new concept, in the 1980’s is when we first really started to see sustained and substantial use of this method in classrooms in America.
  • Source:Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. Comments: Cooperative learning has many HUGE benefits in the classroom, among which are: a decrease in racial discrimination and an increase in positive race relations, an increase in student self-esteem, and an increase in student satisfaction (which we will address later as a motivation for learning).
  • Source: The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University, Department of Educational Technology. (n.d.). Project based learning: The online resource for PBL. Retrieved from http://pbl-online.org/Comments: This approach encourages students to apply concepts to larger scale projects and tasks.
  • Source: Mills, J. E., & Treagust, D. F. (2003). Engineering education—Is problem-based or project-based learning the answer?.Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, online publication 2003-04. Retrieved from http://www.aaee.com.au/journal/2003/mills_treagust03.pdfComments:In the past engineering has been considered a “chalk and talk” education using lecture teaching techniques (Mills & Treagust, 2003, para. 2). Mills and Teagust found the following results when they applied the PBL constructivist model to a objectivist learning environment. I found this study interesting because it shows that constructivist models help students understand concepts in what they are learning and how to apply them appropriately, but also that it is important to use some objectivists theories to enhance understanding of the fundamentals.
  • Source: Foster, E., & Rotoloni, R. (2005). Reciprocal teaching: General overview of theories. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/Comments: Reciprocal Learning is teachers and students talking together and thinking out loud to work through problems. It is usually used at the beginning or end of instruction and joins the educator and learner together in one purpose.
  • Comments: Though reciprocal teaching is often applied to teaching in schools, the concepts are cyclical and can be applied to any learning method. They teach us to asses, predict, clarify and summarize what we are learning. Reciprocal Learning opens the mind to analyze how what we are learning or reading could change.
  • Source: Hashey, J. M, & Connors, D. J. (2003). Learn from our journey: Reciprocal teaching action research. Reading Teacher, 57(3), 224-233. Comments:In other studies it is proven that Reciprocal Learning can be used to enhance not only reading abilities, but also a student’s ability to comprehend mathematical word problems. (Foster & Rotoloni, 2005)
  • Comments: You have now been sitting here for the last XX minutes. I think it is about time that I asked you a few questions about what we have discussed. You don’t have to answer out loud. I have presented topics that are interesting to me. I hope that you have been able to understand the topics from my point of view, and that it has been interesting to you as well. When it comes to your education, it depends on what motivates you to want to learn more about these topics. That is why the last major topic in INST that I will address today is learner motivation. I can continue for another XX minutes, which I won’t, but in any case, what value is it to you if you are not motivated to take interest in the things that I am saying. We as educators need to identify what motivates our students to grasp onto and apply the knowledge we are conveying to them. We need to understand their learning codes. How do we do that?
  • Source: Keller, J.M.(1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Comments: I wantto start with the ARCS model as outlined by John Keller because it is one of the most frequently used models in learner motivation. I like this model because I can see a combination of objectivist and constructivist theories used in it, which supports my perspective that instruction is a combination of teaching practices to meet the learners needs and to enhance sustainable behavior change.
  • Source:Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Source: Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.Comments: The major difference is when the model is prescriptive and the areas during the motivational process that allow flexibility for the educator. I personally still identify more with the ARCS model, because I prefer the systematic approach which allows for a clear framework while still permitting the educator to be flexible within each subcategory and to ask questions during the process.
  • Source:Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-Regulation, Ego Depletion, and Motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 1-14.Comments: -Standards:Baumeister & Vohs (2007) suggest that effective self-regulation requires these standards to be clear. When standards are conflicting or ambiguous self-regulation is proven to be very difficult. -Monitoring: self is compared to the standard, and the cycle continues until the two are in line (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007) -Willpower:changing the self is difficult and therefore requires a certain amount of strength (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007). -Motivation: his refers to the motivation one has to meet the goal or standard; the lack of motivation could cause the failure to self-regulate (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007).
  • Source: Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S., Merrill, D. G.., Waller, J. A., & Haugh, L. D. (1989). Preventing Alcohol-impaired driving through community self-regulation training. American Journal of Public Health, 79 (3), 287-290.Comments: some of the areas of interest in self-regulation include: self-regulation of health related behaviors, self-regulation in organizational settings, depression, relationship success, self-regulation dealing with sexual acts, criminal acts, social anxiety, etc…I found the Worden, et al., study interesting because I have a background in public health. It helped me to apply this motivational method to me personally.
  • Source: Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner, Handbook of self-regulation. (pp 13- 35). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Source: Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 (3), 3.Comments:Zimmerman shows here how his theory of self-regulation, Social Cognitive Perspective, is cyclical and focuses how change is due to context-specific processes involving the environment and behavior.
  • Source: my opinionsComments:Objectivism and Constructivism both have roots dating back several centuries. After WWII objectivism was heavily accepted in our culture as people tried to apply human learning to the components and functioning of a computer (The Cognitive Processes Classes, 1997). I believe that with the development of smart computers and the manipulation of technology, educators are beginning to apply more constructivist learning methods that focus on exploration and student social interactions. As with all history, I believe that as we move forward both theories will be needed to create best practices and to combine what we have learned with education with what we are learning about education.It is our role as the educator to be informed about the different learning environments and motivational tactics that will enhance our teaching capabilities and increase sustainable behavior change within our students.

Transcript

  • 1. Unit 2 PresentationINST 5131Lorie Camacho
    University of Houston—Clear Lake
  • 2. Psychological Foundation
    Learning is defined as “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential.”
    -- Driscoll (2005)
    B.F. Skinner Robert Gagné John Dewey David Ausubel Jean Piaget Jerome Bruner Howard Gardner
    1904-1990 1916-2002 1859-1952 1918-2008 1896-1980 1915-Present 1943- Present
  • 3. Psychological Foundations
    Learning is:
    A result of experience and interaction with the world
    An individual process
    Characterized by the processes shared by and affecting the members of a group
    2 Major Theoretical approaches to learning:
    (1) Objectivism or directed instruction
    (2) Constructivism or inquiry-based learning
  • 4. Objectivism
    Grounded primarily in behaviorist learning theory and information-processing
    Objectivists believe that:
    Knowledge has a separate, real existence of its own in the human mind
    Learning= knowledge transmitted to people and stored in their minds
  • 5. Objectivism cont…
    Major theories include:
    Behaviorism
    Cognition-Information Processing
    Cognitive-Behavioral Theory: Gagné
  • 6. Behaviorism
    Associated with B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
    Based on the belief that “learning can be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 37)
    Observations are empirical
    Behavior shaped: antecedents and reinforcements
    Negative
    Positive
    Skinner is called by some “the most influential psychologist of the 20thcentury.” --Eggen & Kauchak (2004)
  • 7. Behaviorism cont…
    Mind is a Black Box (Huitt & Hummel, 2006)
    3 main types of Behaviorist learning:
    1. Contiguity- stimulus and response
    2. Classical (Respondent) Conditioning- conditioning, antecedent, reflexive, innate, elicits
    3. Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning- emitted, consequent or consequences
  • 8. Behaviorism: Why I agree
    As Pavlov proved through salivating dogs, reaction to stimuli or antecedents can be reflexive and unavoidable.
    I strongly believe every person has a learning code, understanding positive and negative reinforcements for the individual pupil is critical to understanding how to motivate sustainable behavior and performance change.
    When looking over my life, I personally can see how information I have learned has negatively or positively affected me due to how that information was presented or reinforced.
  • 9. Behaviorism: Why I disagree
    Behaviorism is not always the most effective way to motivate or transmit knowledge and learning to pupils when principles are applied to general groups.
    Positive reinforcements for one student are negative for another (build one up while pushing one down)
    (e.g. behavior yard stick)
    Commonly perceived positive reinforcements are not accurate for all students (culture, and background can affect reactions to positive reinforcements)
    (e.g. praise can be a negative reinforcement to students who do not like to be singled out in a classroom)
  • 10. Cognition-Information Processing
    Information Processing- breaking inside the “black box” or mind
    Stimuli= Inputs, Behavior=Outputs, Information Processing= what happens in between
    Emerged with computers after WWII
    Characteristics: eye catching material to enhance attention, instructions to encode important information, and practice exercises to store informationlearned.
  • 11. Cognition- Information Processing cont…
    Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggest that memory is made up of a series of stores- and functions much like a computer (McLeod, S.A., 2007)
    McLeod, S.A. (2007) Simply Psychology [On-line]. UK. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/
  • 12. Cognition-Information Processing cont…
    Guidelines for enhancing attention, encoding, and storage processes include:
    Gagné hierarchical “bottoms up” approach
    (e.g. multiplication skills before long division)
    Ausubel’s “top down” approach
    “Advance organizers” give mental framework
  • 13. Cognition-Information Processing cont…
    Critics of Cognitive-Information Processing
    (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy c/o Paul Thagard, 2002)
    The emotion challenge
    The consciousness challenge
    The world challenge
    The social challenge
    The dynamical systems challenge
    The mathematics challenge
  • 14. Constructivism
    Also known as inquiry based, evolved from cognitive branches of learning
    Constructivists believe that:
    Humans construct all knowledge in their minds by participating in certain experiences
    Learning= the construction of both mechanisms for learning and one’s own unique version of the knowledge, colored by background, experiences, and aptitudes
  • 15. Constructivism
    Major theories include:
    Cognition
    Situated Learning-Social Activism
    Scaffolding Theory
    Cognitive-Child Development and Discovery Learning
    Multiple Intelligences Theory
  • 16. Social Activism
    Associated with John Dewey (1859-1952)
    “One of the weightiest problems with which the philosophy of education has to cope is the method of keeping a proper balance between the informal and the formal, the incidental and the intentional, modes of education” (Dewey, 1916, p. 9).
    “Dewey believed that education should be a way of helping individuals understand their culture and should develop their relationship to and unique roles in society.” (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p. 38).
    Dewey is “considered by many to be the Grandfather of Constructivism” –Roblyer & Doering (2006)
  • 17. Social Activism cont…
    Learning is individual growth that comes about through social experiences
    Growth is fostered through hands-on activities connected to real world problems
    School curriculum should arise from students’ interests and be taught as integrated topics rather than as isolated skills
  • 18. Social Activism: Why I agree
    Advocated a merging of “absolutism” and experimentalism,” encouraging the combination of objectivist and constructivist theories and views
    Pushed for a shift in viewing a person and an environment in terms of their contributions to an activity or society, rather than as separately described things
  • 19. Cognitive-Child Development and Discovery Learning
    Attributed to Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
    “Intelligence is an adaptation…To say that intelligence is a particular instance of biological adaptation is thus to suppose that it is essentially an organization and that its function is to structure the universe just as the organism structures its immediate environment" (Piaget, 1963, pp. 3-4).
    Children undergo 4 stages of learning
    Confrontation of unknowns leads to disequilibrium; and then assimilationor accommodation
    “Piaget referred to himself as a ‘genetic epistemologist’” –Roblyer & Doering (2006)
  • 20. Cognitive-Child Development and Discovery Learning cont…
    4 Stages of Learning
    Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)
    Preoperational (2-7 years)
    Concrete Operations (7-11 years)
    Formal Operations (12-15 years)
  • 21. Cognitive-Child Development and Discovery Learning cont…
    Even though Piaget’s theory focuses primarily on children, it is important that educators instructing students of all ages understand the fundamental process of educational development.
    It is also important to note that these stages are the same for all children.
    Some theorists, like Jerome Bruner, have advocated for intervention at each stage to enhance learning and manipulate the developmental process. Research findings, however, have shown mixed results.
  • 22. Multiple Intelligence Theory
    Developed by Howard Gardner (1943-Present)
    Only learning-development theory that attempts to define the role of intelligence in learning
    8 different types of intelligence
    Based off of Guilford work on the structure of intellect and Sternberg’s views of intelligence as influenced by culture
    “Howard Gardner has established himself as one of the world's foremost authorities on the topics of intelligence,
    creativity, leadership, professional responsibility, and the arts.“ –Jonathan Plucker (2007)
  • 23. Multiple Intelligence Theory cont…
    8 different and relatively independent types of intelligence:
    1. linguistic (writers, journalists, poets)
    2. musical (composers, pianists, conductors)
    3. logical-mathematical (scientists, mathematicians)
    4. spatial (artists, sculptors, graphic artists)
    5. bodily-kinesthetic (dancers, athletes, watchmakers)
    6. intrapersonal (self-aware/self motivated)
    7. interpersonal (psychologists, therapists, salespersons)
    8. naturalists (botanists, biologists)
  • 24. Multiple Intelligence Theory cont…
    “According to Gardiner’s theory, IQ tests (which tend to stress linguistic/logical-mathematical abilities) cannot judge all students’ ability to learn, and traditional academic tasks may not reflect true ability” (Roblyer & Doering, 2006, p. 41).
    This supports my belief that as instructional technologists, we need to continually be aware of our students’ interests, learning styles, and capabilities so that we can teach most effectively to them.
  • 25. Conclusion
    Learning is independent to each individual, though it may be measured as activities of the community as a whole
    I believe it is important to combine Objectivist theoretical concepts with those of Constructivist theories in order to meet the needs of various students.
    Teaching should maintain directed teaching methods (reinforcement, information processing) while enhancing learning through the exploration of student interests and intelligence (group work, etc..)
  • 26. References
    Bredo, Eric. (1994). Cognitivism, Situated Cognition, and Deweyian Pragmatism. Retrieved from: http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/94_docs/BREDO.HTM
    Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. N.Y.: MacMillan.
    Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2004). Educational Psychology: Windows on classrooms (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merril/Prentice Hall.
     Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2006). An overview of the behavioral perspective. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behsys/behsys.html
    McLeod, S.A. (2007) Simply Psychology [On-line]. UK. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/
    Plucker, J. A. (Ed.). (2003). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~intell
    Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
    Roblyer, M., & Doering, A. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy c/o Paul Thagard. 2002. Cognitive Science (paragraph 7). Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cognitive-science/
    The Cognitive Processes Classes. (1997). History of cognitive psychology. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/cognitiv.htm.
  • 27. Learning Environments
    "Learners in supportive environments have high levels of self efficacy and self-motivation and use learning as a primary transformative force" (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1989).
  • 28. Objectivist Learning Environments
    Structured to learning of knowledge and skills deemed important by teachers and/or subject matter experts
    Emphasis on the product
    Objectives to be met
    Systemic process oriented
    Teacher oriented
  • 29. Objectivist Learning Environments cont…
    Advantages
    Good for companies and other learning environments when one specific outcome must be understood by the learner in order to succeed at a specific job or to progress to higher concepts
    Expectations are clear and a direct set of learning objectives are present
    Disadvantages
    Limits innovation
    Limits social interaction
    Discourages asking questions
  • 30. Constructivist Learning Environments
    “a place where learners may work together and support each other as they use a variety of tools and information in their pursuit of learning goals and problem-solving activities” (Wilson, 1995, p. 27).
    Process based
    Question driven
    Cyclical in nature
    Context is the principal organizer, not content
  • 31. Constructivist Learning Environments cont…
    Second Life
    Computer animation and virtual reality
    Increased opportunities to social interact with others via the internet, phone, Skype, etc…)
    Blogs, online meetings for organizations, email, and so forth lead to the average person being able to collaborate and have a voice in their education
  • 32. Constructivist Models
    Cooperative learning
    Project-based learning (PBL)
    Reciprocal learning
  • 33. Constructivist Models cont…
    All models utilize the following concepts, as these are central to the constructivist instructional design (Wilson & Cole, 1991):
    Learning is embedded in a rich authentic problem-solving environment
    Authentic versus academic contexts for learning are provided
    Provisions for learner control are incorporated
    Errors are used as a mechanism to provide feedback on learners’ understanding
    Learning is embedded in social experience
  • 34. Cooperative Learning
    “Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it” (Kagan, 1994).
  • 35. Cooperative Learning cont…
    A Brief History:
    Roman philosopher, Seneca advocated cooperative learning through statements such as, "Qui Docet Discet" (when you teach, you learn twice).
    Late 1700s Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bellbrought the idea to America when a Lancastrian school was opened in New York City in 1806.
    John Dewey and others supported it
    Competition of other methods suppressed utilization of this model until the 1980s.
  • 36. Cooperative Learning cont…
    Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques:
    promote student learning and academic achievement
    increase student retention
    enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience
    help students develop skills in oral communication
    develop students' social skills
    promote student self-esteem
    help to promote positive race relations
  • 37. Project-Based Learning
    “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning essential knowledge and life-enhancing skills through an extended, student-influenced inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks” (The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University, Department of Educational Technology).
  • 38. Project-Based Learning cont…
    WHY PBL?
    In a study conducted by J. Mills and D. Treagust (2003), applying PBL to engineering education, it was found that students who participated in PBL:
    Were generally motivated by it and demonstrate better teamwork and communication skills
    Had a better understanding of the application of their knowledge in practice and the complexities of other issues involved in professional practice.
    BUT may have a less rigorous understanding of engineering fundamentals.
  • 39. Reciprocal Learning
    “Reciprocal teaching is a cooperative learning instructional method in which natural dialogue models and reveals learners' thinking processes about a shared learning experience” (Foster & Rotoloni, 2005).
    Teachers believe in collaborative construction between them and the students
    Students take ownership of their roles in reciprocal teaching by expressing their ideas
  • 40. Caption: Reciprocal teaching process. Image by Donna Ahlrich, Charmaine Broe-MacKenzie and Jim Brown (2005).
  • 41. Reciprocal Learning cont…
    A study by Hashey, et al. (2003), proved that Reciprocal Learning increases:
    students' confidence and success
    their understanding and use of strategies
    their enjoyment of literature.
    At the conclusion of the study, one seventh grade student commented that “[reciprocal teaching] helps me understand the book more, understand meaningful questions, understand other people's opinions” (Hashey, et al, 2003, pp. 224-233).
  • 42. References
    Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: Inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago: Open Court.
    Foster, E., & Rotoloni, R. (2005). Reciprocal teaching: General overview of theories. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/
    Hashey, J. M, & Connors, D. J. (2003). Learn from our journey: Reciprocal teaching action research. Reading Teacher, 57(3), 224-233.
    Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
    Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing.
    Mills, J. E., & Treagust, D. F. (2003). Engineering education—Is problem-based or project-based learning the answer?.Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, online publication 2003-04. Retrieved from http://www.aaee.com.au/journal/2003/mills_treagust03.pdf
    Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
    The Buck Institute for Education and Boise State University, Department of Educational Technology. (n.d.). Project based learning: The online resource for PBL. Retrieved from http://pbl-online.org/
    Wilson, B. G., & Cole, P. (1991). Cognitive dissonance as an instructional variable. Ohio Media Spectrum, 43 (4), 11-21.
    Wilson, B. (1995). Metaphors for instruction: Why we talk about learning environments. Educational Technology, 35(5), 25-30.
  • 43. Learner Motivation
  • 44. Ask Yourself??
    What would be/has been the value to you of this type of presentation?
    What do you hope to get out of this presentation?
    What are your interests in the topic of this presentation that I have presented?
    What issues or pressing problems do you have with this presentation?
  • 45. ARCS-John Keller model
    Attention: enhance attention (Info. Processing)
    Relevance: link to learner (STM to LTM)
    Confidence: students have strong understanding and are confidence (Cooperative, PBL, Reciprocal)
    Satisfaction: reinforcement for effort-intrinsic and extrinsic
    Keller, J.M.(1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • 46. ARCS vs. Time-Continuum
    Raymond Wlodkowski developed a model in 1999 similar to Keller’s ARCS model called the time-continuum.
    Both models are:
    Holistic
    Somewhat prescriptive, but mostly heuristic
    Comprised of tactics to increasing motivation
    Wlodkowski, R.J. (1999). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive approach to support learning among all adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • 47. ARCS vs. Time-Continuum cont…
    However,
    ARCS
    “the tactics selection…is done systematically from its sets of categories and subcategories” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 87)
    Problem solving approach
    Time-Continuum
    Contains categories of motivational tactics and prescribes when to use them, but does not include how many tactics to use at a time (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 87)
  • 48. Self Regulation
    “Self-regulation refers to the self’s capacity to alter its behaviors” (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007)
    Baumeister and Vohs propose 4 main elements:
    Standards
    Monitoring
    Self-regulatory strength or “willpower”
    Motivation
  • 49. Self Regulation
    Can be applied to a variety of environments
    One study done by Worden, Flynn, Merrill, Waller, & Haugh (1989) proved self-regulation effective in a health campaign to reduce alcohol-impaired driving
    Intervention: community education or T.V. education to teach self-regulation when drinking at bars
    Conclusion: community education kept the BAC levels low of drivers by 5.3%!
  • 50. Zimmerman and Self-Regulation
    B. J. Zimmerman proposes Social Cognitive Perspective
    The social cognitive perspective defines self-regulation in terms of “context-specific processes that are used cyclically to achieve personal goals” goes against theoretical traditions that try to define self-regulation as a “singular internal state, trait, or stage that is genetically endowed or personally discovered” (Zimmerman, 2000, p. 34).
  • 51. Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 (3), 3.
  • 52. References
    Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-Regulation, Ego Depletion, and Motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 1-14.
    Keller, J.M.(1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
    Wlodkowski, R.J. (1999). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive approach to support learning among all adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Worden, J. K., Flynn, B. S., Merrill, D. G.., Waller, J. A., & Haugh, L. D. (1989). Preventing Alcohol-impaired driving through community self-regulation training. American Journal of Public Health, 79 (3), 287-290.
    Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 (3), 3.
  • 53. Conclusion: What I have learned
    Objectivism is our past, constructivism is our future
    The combination of the two is best practice
    When used appropriately, psychological foundations can create an appropriate learning environment
    Educators need to understand the interests and the specific learning codes of their students in order to apply correct motivational processes