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Clean Code II - Dependency Injection at SoCal Code Camp San Diego (07/27/2013)
 

Clean Code II - Dependency Injection at SoCal Code Camp San Diego (07/27/2013)

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All 3 Clean Code presentations provide great value by themselves, but taken together are designed to offer a holistic approach to successful software creation. This presentation requires you to know ...

All 3 Clean Code presentations provide great value by themselves, but taken together are designed to offer a holistic approach to successful software creation. This presentation requires you to know and understand basics like DRY, SoC, SRP, SOLID etc. which will be explained in the 1st Clean Code session. However, it will start at the basics of DI and will work towards intermediate and advanced scenarios depending on the participating group.

Why writing Clean Code makes us more efficient Over the lifetime of a product, maintaining the product is actually one - if not the most - expensive area(s) of the overall product costs. Writing clean code can significantly lower these costs. However, writing clean code also makes you more efficient during the initial development time and results in more stable code. You will be presented design patterns and best practices which will make you write better and more easily maintainable code, seeing code in a holistic way. You will learn how to apply them by using an existing implementation as the starting point of the presentation. Finally, patterns & practices benefits are explained.

This presentation is based on C# and Visual Studio 2010. However, the demonstrated patterns and practice can be applied to every other programming language too.

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    Clean Code II - Dependency Injection at SoCal Code Camp San Diego (07/27/2013) Clean Code II - Dependency Injection at SoCal Code Camp San Diego (07/27/2013) Presentation Transcript

    • Dependency Injection San Diego, July 27th, 2013 SolCal Code Camp Clean Code II
    • Theo Jungeblut • Engineering manager & lead by day at AppDynamics in San Francisco • Coder & software craftsman by night, house builder and soon to be dad • Architects decoupled solutions & crafts maintainable code to last • Worked in healthcare and factory automation, building mission critical applications, framework & platforms • Degree in Software Engineering and Network Communications • Enjoys cycling, running and eating theo@designitright.net www.designitright.net
    • Rate Session & Win a Shirt http://www.speakerrate.com/theoj
    • Where to get the Slides http://www.slideshare.net/theojungeblut
    • Overview • What is the issue? • What is Dependency Injection? • What are Dependencies? • What is the IoC-Container doing for you? • What, how, why? • Q & A
    • UI Service ProcessorProcessor Service ResourcesResources UI Processor A cleanly layered Architecture
    • What is the problem?
    • What is Clean Code?
    • Clean Code is maintainable Source code must be: • readable & well structured • extensible • testable
    • Code Maintainability * Principles Patterns Containers Why? How? What? Extensibility Clean Code Tool reuse * from: Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET” presentation Bay.NET 05/2011
    • What is Dependency Injection?
    • Without Dependency Injection public class ExampleClass { private Logger logger; public ExampleClass() { this.logger = new Logger(); this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } }
    • public class ExampleClass { private Logger logger; public ExampleClass() { this.logger = new Logger(); this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } } Without Dependency Injection
    • Inversion of Control – Constructor Injectionhttp://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html public class ExampleClass { private ILogger logger; public ExampleClass(ILogger logger) { this.logger = logger; if (logger == null) { throw new ArgumentNullException(“logger”); } this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } }
    • Why is Dependency Injection beneficial?
    • Benefits of Dependency Injection Benefit Description Late binding Services can be swapped with other services. Extensibility Code can be extended and reused in ways not explicitly planned for. Parallel development Code can be developed in parallel. Maintainability Classes with clearly defined responsibilities are easier to maintain. TESTABILITY Classes can be unit tested. * from Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET”, page 16
    • The Adapter Pattern from Gang of Four, “Design Patterns”
    • What are Dependencies ?
    • Stable Dependency “A DEPENDENCY that can be referenced without any detrimental effects. The opposite of a VOLATILE DEPENDENCY. “ * From Glossary: Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET”
    • Volatile Dependency “A DEPENDENCY that involves side effects that may be undesirable at times. This may include modules that don’t yet exist, or that have adverse requirements on its runtime environment. These are the DEPENDENCIES that are addressed by DI.“ * From Glossary: Mark Seemann’s “Dependency Injection in .NET”
    • Lifetime a Job for the Container
    • public class ExampleClass { private Logger logger; public ExampleClass() { this.logger = new Logger(); this.logger.Log(“Constructor call”); } } Without Dependency Injection
    • “Register, Resolve, Release” “Three Calls Pattern by Krzysztof Koźmic: http://kozmic.pl/ 1. Register 2. Resolve Build up You code Execu te Release Clean up
    • What the IoC-Container will do for you 1. Register 2. Resolve Build up Release Clean up
    • Separation of Concern (SoC) probably by Edsger W. Dijkstra in 1974 You code Execu te • Focus on purpose of your code • Know only the contracts of the dependencies • No need to know implementations • No need to handle lifetime of the dependencies
    • The 3 Dimensions of DI 1.Object Composition 2.Object Lifetime 3.Interception
    • Register - Composition Root • XML based Configuration • Code based Configuration • Convention based (Discovery)
    • Resolve Resolve a single object request for example by Constructor Injection by resolving the needed object graph for this object.
    • Release Release objects from Container when not needed anymore.
    • Anti Patterns
    • Control Freak http://www.freakingnews.com/The-Puppet-Master-will-play-Pics-102728.asp
    • // UNITY Example internal static class Program { private static UnityContainer unityContainer; private static SingleContactManagerForm singleContactManagerForm; private static void InitializeMainForm() { singleContactManagerForm = unityContainer.Resolve<SingleContactManagerForm>(); } } Inversion of Control – Service Locator http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
    • // UNITY Example internal static class Program { private static UnityContainer unityContainer; private static SingleContactManagerForm singleContactManagerForm; private static void InitializeMainForm() { singleContactManagerForm = unityContainer.Resolve<SingleContactManagerForm>(); } } Inversion of Control – Service Locator http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
    • Inversion of Control – Setter (Property) Injection // UNITY Example public class ContactManager : IContactManager { [Dependency] public IContactPersistence ContactPersistence { get { return this.contactPersistence; } set { this.contactPersistence = value; } } } http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
    • Property Injection + Easy to understand - Hard to implement robust * Take if an good default exists - Limited in application otherwise
    • Method Injection public class ContactManager : IContactManager { …. public bool Save (IContactPersistencecontactDatabaseService, IContact contact) { if (logger == null) { throw new ArgumentNullException(“logger”); } …. // Additional business logic executed before calling the save return contactDatabaseService.Save(contact); } } http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html
    • Method Injection • Needed for handling changing dependencies in method calls
    • Ambient Context public class ContactManager : IContactManager { …. public bool Save (….) { …. IUser currentUser = ApplicationContext.CurrentUser; …. } } * The Ambient Context object needs to have a default value if not assigned yet.
    • Ambient Context • Avoids polluting an API with Cross Cutting Concerns • Only for Cross Cutting Concerns • Limited in application otherwise
    • Interception Public class LoggingInterceptor : IContactManager { public bool Save(IContact contact) { bool success; this. logger.Log(“Starting saving’); success = this.contactManager.Save(contact); this. logger.Log(“Starting saving’); return success; } } Public class ContactManager : IContactManager { public bool Save(IContact contact) { …. return Result } } * Note: strong simplification of what logically happens through interception.
    • Dependency Injection Container & more • Typically support all types of Inversion of Control mechanisms • Constructor Injection • Property (Setter) Injection • Method (Interface) Injection • Service Locator •.NET based DI-Container • Unity • Castle Windsor • StructureMap • Spring.NET • Autofac • Puzzle.Nfactory • Ninject • PicoContainer.NET • and more Related Technology: • Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF)
    • The “Must Read”-Book(s) http://www.manning.com/seemann/ by Mark Seemann Dependency Injection is a set of software design principles and patterns that enable us to develop loosely coupled code.
    • Summary Clean Code - DI Maintainability is achieved through: • Simplification, Specialization Decoupling (KISS, SoC, IoC, DI) • Dependency Injection Constructor Injection as default, Property and Method Injection as needed, Ambient Context for Dependencies with a default, Service Locator never • Registration Configuration by Convention if possible, exception in Code as needed Configuration by XML for explicit extensibility and post compile setup • Quality through Testability (all of them!) Graphic by Nathan Sawaya courtesy of brickartist.com
    • Downloads, Feedback & Comments: Q & A Graphic by Nathan Sawaya courtesy of brickartist.com theo@designitright.net www.designitright.net www.speakerrate.com/theoj
    • References… http://www.manning.com/seemann/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keep_it_simple_stupid http://picocontainer.org/patterns.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependency_inversion_principle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don't_repeat_yourself http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Component-oriented_programming http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html http://www.codeproject.com/KB/aspnet/IOCDI.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163739.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff650320.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa973811.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff647976.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc707845.aspx http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb833022.aspx http://unity.codeplex.com/ Lego (trademarked in capitals as LEGO)
    • Blog, Rating, Slides http://www.DesignItRight.net www.speakerrate.com/theoj www.slideshare.net/theojungeblut
    • … thanks for you attention! And visit and support the www.sandiegodotnet.com Please fill out the feedback, and… www.speakerrate.com/theoj