PTCA
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PTCA

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PTCA PTCA Presentation Transcript

  • PercutaneousTransluminal Coronary Angioplasty
    (PTCA)
    Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
    By Theodoros Adoni 1151
  • PercutaneousTransluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Is performed to open blocked or narrowed coronary arteries caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and to restorearterial blood flow to the heart tissue without open heart surgery
    • Greek word ‘αγγείο’ = vessel
    and ‘πλαστός’ = moulded
  • Causes
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when fatty deposits called plaquebuild up inside thecoronary arteries
    Factors:
    • Smoking
    • High amounts of certain fats and cholesterolin the blood
    • High blood pressure
    • High amounts of sugar in the
    blood due to insulin resistance or
    diabetes
  • Symptoms
    - Chest pain (angina pectoris) - due to lack of oxygen
    - Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
    - Sweating or “cold sweat”
    - Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling (may feel like “heartburn”)
    - Nausea or vomiting
    - Dyspnea
    - Excessive fatigue
  • PTCA Procedure
    • A special catheter is inserted into the coronary artery to be treated in the femoral artery in the groin
    • First a guide wire is inserted and then a catheter which injects a dye
  • PTCA Procedure – Balloon
    • This catheter has a tiny balloon as its tip
    • The balloon is inflated once the catheter has been placed into the narrowed area of the coronary artery
    • The inflation of the balloon
    compresses the fatty tissue in the
    artery and makes a larger opening inside the artery for improved
    blood flow
  • PTCA Procedure – Stent Placement
    • Is a procedure used in PTCA
    • A tiny, expandable
    metal coil (stent) is
    inserted into the newly
    opened area of the
    artery to help keep the
    artery from narrowing
    or closing again
  • PTCARisks of the Procedure
    • Bleeding at the catheter insertion site
    (usually groin)
    - Blood clots or damage to the blood vessels at the insertion site
    - Blood clot within the vessel treated by PTCA/stent
    - Infection at the catheter insertion site
    • Cardiac arrhythmia
    - Chest painor discomfort
    - Rupture of the coronary artery
  • PTCA Procedure monitoring
    Fluoroscopy (a special type of x-ray that obtains real- time moving images) assists the physician in the location of blockages in the coronary arteries as the contrast dye moves through the arteries.
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    CABG is used over angioplasty when…
    • patientswith severe narrowing or blockage of the left main coronaryartery
    • patients with disease involving two or three coronaryarteries are generally considered for bypass surgery
  • Coronary artery bypass graft
    A segment of a healthy blood vessel from another part in the body is taken
    and make a detour around the blocked part of the coronary artery
    Vessels are used:
    - Internal thoracic artery
    - Saphenous vein
    - Radial artery
  • CABG procedure
    -Incision is made in chest wall (sternotomy)
    -Bypass grafts are harvested
    -In the case of "off-pump" surgery, the surgeon places devices to stabilize the heart
    -In the case is "on-pump", surgeon connects
    heart lung machine to patient and delivers
    cardioplegia to stop the heart
    • One end of each graft is sewn on to
    the coronary arteries beyond the
    blockages and the other end is
    attached to the aorta.
  • - Internal defibrillator paddles used to induce pulse
  • The End