Worldgrids.orgbuilding global covariates for automatedmappingTomislav Hengl & Hannes I. ReuterISRIC  World Soil Informatio...
About ISRIC   ISRIC  World Soil Information.                                     SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
About ISRIC   ISRIC  World Soil Information.   ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center.                   ...
About ISRIC   ISRIC  World Soil Information.   ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center.   Non-prot organiz...
About ISRIC   ISRIC  World Soil Information.   ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center.   Non-prot organiz...
About ISRIC   ISRIC  World Soil Information.   ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center.   Non-prot organiz...
This talk   Global repository of publicly available data (worldgrids.org).   A global multiscale approach to geostat mappi...
Main thesis       Global (multiscale) modeling is now!                                    SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Analysis objectivesFor Diggle and Ribeiro (2007) there are three scientic objectivesof geostatistics:  1. model estimation...
Regression-krigingTarget variable z is a sum of deterministic and stochasticcomponents:                         z(s) = m(s...
BLUP for spatial data                            ˆ ˆ               ˆ             z (s0 ) = qT · β + λT · (z − q · β)      ...
Zeds and ques                  SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Worldgrids.org   I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data   sets of interest for species distribution...
Read more (or see a gallery)                               SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Flight pathsPreparing worldgrids  an example with ight paths (density map)                                              SS...
PyWPSOverlay, subset, reproject, aggregate functionality (example): GNworldgrids(layername=globcov, xcoord=6.848911, ycoor...
Global Soil Information   An international initiative to make soil property maps (7+3) at   six depths at 3 arcsecs (100 m...
My dream is to build an Open multipurpose GLIS                                   SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
The six pillars of open geo-data production1 1. open data, in real-time 2. open source geospatial software 3. open, reprod...
GSM in numbers   The total productive soil areas:   about 104 million square   km.                                        ...
GSM in numbers   The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square   km.   To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k...
GSM in numbers   The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square   km.   To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k...
GSM in numbers   The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square   km.   To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k...
GSM in numbers   The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square   km.   To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k...
Our proposal   Build global repositories of point and gridded data   (covariate).                                         ...
Our proposal   Build global repositories of point and gridded data   (covariate).   Animate people to contribute to the da...
Our proposal   Build global repositories of point and gridded data   (covariate).   Animate people to contribute to the da...
Our proposal   Build global repositories of point and gridded data   (covariate).   Animate people to contribute to the da...
Soil proles from various projects (65k points)                                      SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Critical question:    How to produce soil property maps @ 100 m             with such limited data?                       ...
Global Multiscale Nested RKWe propose using nested RK model: z(sB ) = m0 (sB−k ) + e1 (sB−k |sB−[k+1] ) + . . . + ek (sB−2...
Multi-scale concept                      SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Multi-resolution signal (McBratney, 1998)                                     SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
1 km resolution (AVHRR)                          SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
300 m resolution (ENVISAT)                             SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
25 m resolution (Landsat)                            SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
The proposed system                      SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Showcase           Let us see some real examples                                    SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
GM-NRK in action: Malawi showcase   2740 soil observations,   from which some 8001000 contain   complete analytical and de...
GM-NRK in action: Malawi showcase   2740 soil observations,   from which some 8001000 contain   complete analytical and de...
GM-NRK in action: Malawi showcase   2740 soil observations,   from which some 8001000 contain   complete analytical and de...
Data sets available for Malawi     (a)               (b)           (c)                48.8                32.7            ...
Gridded maps for Malawi                          SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Regression analysis                              10   20   30   40                     0    2000   4000                   ...
pH visualized in GE (1 degree block)                                       SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Conclusions   Global models  global multiscale predictions  are   now.                                        SS2010 confe...
Conclusions   Global models  global multiscale predictions  are   now .   It is very probable that, in the near future, an...
Conclusions   Global models  global multiscale predictions  are   now .   It is very probable that, in the near future, an...
Conclusions   Global models  global multiscale predictions  are   now .   It is very probable that, in the near future, an...
In one sentence:                   Take a broader view!                                          SS2010 conference, Mar 26...
Next steps   Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids.                                   SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Next steps   Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids.   Provide geo-service and spatial analysis functionality   (overlay, subset, ag...
Next steps   Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids.   Provide geo-service and spatial analysis functionality   (overlay, subset, ag...
Next steps   Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids.   Provide geo-service and spatial analysis functionality   (overlay, subset, ag...
Join GEOSTAT               SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Space-time workshop (Münster)                                SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping
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Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping

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Keynote lecture at Spatial Statistics Conference 2011, Enschede

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Worldgrids.org: building global covariates for automated mapping

  1. 1. Worldgrids.orgbuilding global covariates for automatedmappingTomislav Hengl & Hannes I. ReuterISRIC World Soil Information, Wageningen University SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  2. 2. About ISRIC ISRIC World Soil Information. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  3. 3. About ISRIC ISRIC World Soil Information. ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  4. 4. About ISRIC ISRIC World Soil Information. ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center. Non-prot organization / aliated to Wageningen University and Research. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  5. 5. About ISRIC ISRIC World Soil Information. ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center. Non-prot organization / aliated to Wageningen University and Research. Mandate: serve soil data; serve international soil standards; moderate collaboration and partnerships. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  6. 6. About ISRIC ISRIC World Soil Information. ISRIC = International Soil Reference Information Center. Non-prot organization / aliated to Wageningen University and Research. Mandate: serve soil data; serve international soil standards; moderate collaboration and partnerships. Projects: GlobalSoilMap.net, SOTER, Green Water Credits ... SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  7. 7. This talk Global repository of publicly available data (worldgrids.org). A global multiscale approach to geostat mapping. Some examples: Malawi. Upcoming activities. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  8. 8. Main thesis Global (multiscale) modeling is now! SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  9. 9. Analysis objectivesFor Diggle and Ribeiro (2007) there are three scientic objectivesof geostatistics: 1. model estimation, i.e.inference about the model parameters; 2. prediction, i.e.inference about the unobserved values of the target variable; 3. hypothesis testing; SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  10. 10. Regression-krigingTarget variable z is a sum of deterministic and stochasticcomponents: z(s) = m(s) + ε(s) (1)where m(s) is the deterministic part of the variation (i.e.a linearfunction of the auxiliary variables), ε(s) is the residual for every (s). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  11. 11. BLUP for spatial data ˆ ˆ ˆ z (s0 ) = qT · β + λT · (z − q · β) ˆ 0 0 ˆ −1 β = qT · C−1 · q · qT · C−1 · z (2) ˆ λ0 = C−1 · c0This is the dominant model used in ∼90% of our mapping projects(Minasny and McBratney, 2007) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  12. 12. Zeds and ques SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  13. 13. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  14. 14. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. I discovered that at 15 km resolution, there is A LOT of publicly available data which are under-used. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  15. 15. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. I discovered that at 15 km resolution, there is A LOT of publicly available data which are under-used. The original images need to be processed before you can use them as global covariates. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  16. 16. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. I discovered that at 15 km resolution, there is A LOT of publicly available data which are under-used. The original images need to be processed before you can use them as global covariates. Produce grids → prepare data for upload → geo-serve it. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  17. 17. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. I discovered that at 15 km resolution, there is A LOT of publicly available data which are under-used. The original images need to be processed before you can use them as global covariates. Produce grids → prepare data for upload → geo-serve it. The result is a repository with cca 100 unique rasters, that can be obtained directly from http://spatial-analyst.net/worldmaps/. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  18. 18. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. I discovered that at 15 km resolution, there is A LOT of publicly available data which are under-used. The original images need to be processed before you can use them as global covariates. Produce grids → prepare data for upload → geo-serve it. The result is a repository with cca 100 unique rasters, that can be obtained directly from http://spatial-analyst.net/worldmaps/. Each gridded map consists of 7200 columns and 3600 rows; the cell size is 0.05 arcdegrees, which corresponds to about 5.6 km; all maps fall on the same grid. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  19. 19. Worldgrids.org I was ask to write a review of publicly available global data sets of interest for species distribution modeling. I discovered that at 15 km resolution, there is A LOT of publicly available data which are under-used. The original images need to be processed before you can use them as global covariates. Produce grids → prepare data for upload → geo-serve it. The result is a repository with cca 100 unique rasters, that can be obtained directly from http://spatial-analyst.net/worldmaps/. Each gridded map consists of 7200 columns and 3600 rows; the cell size is 0.05 arcdegrees, which corresponds to about 5.6 km; all maps fall on the same grid. PS: I also have a lot of data at 1 km. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  20. 20. Read more (or see a gallery) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  21. 21. Flight pathsPreparing worldgrids an example with ight paths (density map) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  22. 22. PyWPSOverlay, subset, reproject, aggregate functionality (example): GNworldgrids(layername=globcov, xcoord=6.848911, ycoord=52.245427) [1] 50under construction. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  23. 23. Global Soil Information An international initiative to make soil property maps (7+3) at six depths at 3 arcsecs (100 m). the lightmotive is to assemble, collate, and rescue as much of the worlds existing soil data ; Some 30 people directly involved (ISRIC is the main project coordinator). International compilation of soil data. The soil-equivalent of the OneGeology.org, GBIF, GlobCover and similar projects. See full specications at http://globalsoilmap.org/specifications SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  24. 24. My dream is to build an Open multipurpose GLIS SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  25. 25. The six pillars of open geo-data production1 1. open data, in real-time 2. open source geospatial software 3. open, reproducable procedures 4. open, web-based, methods for data and processing models (interoperability) 5. open and explicitly quantied signicance and accuracy levels of research ndings 6. managed, open user and developer communities 1 Edzer Pebesma, (OpenGeostatistic.org) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  26. 26. GSM in numbers The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square km. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  27. 27. GSM in numbers The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square km. To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k), would cost about 5 billion EUR (0.5 EUR per ha) using traditional methods. According to Pedro Sanchez, world soils could be mapped for $0.20 USD per ha ($300 million USD). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  28. 28. GSM in numbers The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square km. To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k), would cost about 5 billion EUR (0.5 EUR per ha) using traditional methods. According to Pedro Sanchez, world soils could be mapped for $0.20 USD per ha ($300 million USD). We would require some 65M proles according to the strict rules of Avery (1987). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  29. 29. GSM in numbers The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square km. To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k), would cost about 5 billion EUR (0.5 EUR per ha) using traditional methods. According to Pedro Sanchez, world soils could be mapped for $0.20 USD per ha ($300 million USD). We would require some 65M proles according to the strict rules of Avery (1987). World map at 0.008333333 arcdegrees (ca.1 km) resolution is an image of size 43,200Ö21,600 pixels. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  30. 30. GSM in numbers The total productive soil areas: about 104 million square km. To map the world soils at 100 m (1:200k), would cost about 5 billion EUR (0.5 EUR per ha) using traditional methods. According to Pedro Sanchez, world soils could be mapped for $0.20 USD per ha ($300 million USD). We would require some 65M proles according to the strict rules of Avery (1987). World map at 0.008333333 arcdegrees (ca.1 km) resolution is an image of size 43,200Ö21,600 pixels. One image of the world at a 100 m resolution contains 27 billion pixels (productive soil areas only!). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  31. 31. Our proposal Build global repositories of point and gridded data (covariate). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  32. 32. Our proposal Build global repositories of point and gridded data (covariate). Animate people to contribute to the data repositories (crowdsourcing). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  33. 33. Our proposal Build global repositories of point and gridded data (covariate). Animate people to contribute to the data repositories (crowdsourcing). Implement the six pillars of open geo-data production (especially open infrastructures and open code). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  34. 34. Our proposal Build global repositories of point and gridded data (covariate). Animate people to contribute to the data repositories (crowdsourcing). Implement the six pillars of open geo-data production (especially open infrastructures and open code). Prove that it is doable ( showcases). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  35. 35. Soil proles from various projects (65k points) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  36. 36. Critical question: How to produce soil property maps @ 100 m with such limited data? SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  37. 37. Global Multiscale Nested RKWe propose using nested RK model: z(sB ) = m0 (sB−k ) + e1 (sB−k |sB−[k+1] ) + . . . + ek (sB−2 |sB−1 ) + ε(sB ) (3)where z(s ) is the value of the target variable estimated at ground Bscale (B), , . . . , are the higher order components, B−1 ) is the residual variation from scale s to a B−ke (s |shigher resolution scale s , and ε is spatially auto-correlated k B−k B−(k+1) B−(k+1)residual soil variation (dealt with ordinary kriging). B−k SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  38. 38. Multi-scale concept SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  39. 39. Multi-resolution signal (McBratney, 1998) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  40. 40. 1 km resolution (AVHRR) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  41. 41. 300 m resolution (ENVISAT) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  42. 42. 25 m resolution (Landsat) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  43. 43. The proposed system SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  44. 44. Showcase Let us see some real examples SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  45. 45. GM-NRK in action: Malawi showcase 2740 soil observations, from which some 8001000 contain complete analytical and descriptive data. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  46. 46. GM-NRK in action: Malawi showcase 2740 soil observations, from which some 8001000 contain complete analytical and descriptive data. 1:800k polygon soil map. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  47. 47. GM-NRK in action: Malawi showcase 2740 soil observations, from which some 8001000 contain complete analytical and descriptive data. 1:800k polygon soil map. Some 30-40 gridded layers at various resolutions (covariates). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  48. 48. Data sets available for Malawi (a) (b) (c) 48.8 32.7 16.6 0.5 10° 11° 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 38000 32667 27333 22000 17° 33° 34° 35° SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  49. 49. Gridded maps for Malawi SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  50. 50. Regression analysis 10 20 30 40 0 2000 4000 max 6 5 4 SOC.T 3 2 1 0 40 30 biocl5 20 10 6000 PRECm 4000 2000 0 5000 4000 3000 globedem 2000 1000 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2000 6000 SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  51. 51. pH visualized in GE (1 degree block) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  52. 52. Conclusions Global models global multiscale predictions are now. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  53. 53. Conclusions Global models global multiscale predictions are now . It is very probable that, in the near future, any geostatistical analysis will be global. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  54. 54. Conclusions Global models global multiscale predictions are now . It is very probable that, in the near future, any geostatistical analysis will be global. We probably need to re-write the geostatistical algorithms so they work with sphere geometry (3D + time). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  55. 55. Conclusions Global models global multiscale predictions are now . It is very probable that, in the near future, any geostatistical analysis will be global. We probably need to re-write the geostatistical algorithms so they work with sphere geometry (3D + time). There is enormous amount of publicly available RS and GIS data that is waiting to be used for geostatistical mapping use it ! SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  56. 56. In one sentence: Take a broader view! SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  57. 57. Next steps Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  58. 58. Next steps Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids. Provide geo-service and spatial analysis functionality (overlay, subset, aggregate). SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  59. 59. Next steps Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids. Provide geo-service and spatial analysis functionality (overlay, subset, aggregate). Start making cyber-infrastructure for 250 m and 100 m grids. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  60. 60. Next steps Launch 5 and 1 km worldgrids. Provide geo-service and spatial analysis functionality (overlay, subset, aggregate). Start making cyber-infrastructure for 250 m and 100 m grids. Provide geo-processing services for automated mapping. SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  61. 61. Join GEOSTAT SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
  62. 62. Space-time workshop (Münster) SS2010 conference, Mar 26th 2011
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