Current issues and challenges in education


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Current issues and challenges in education

  1. 1. Program on Educational EntrepreneurshipCurrent issues and Challenges …… education By Prof. M.M. Pant For more details, visit:
  2. 2. Technological advances and the knowledge economy• The world of atoms• The world of bits• Convergences leading to new frontiers• in nano-technology,• in biology,• in space,• in cognition,• in consciousness etc.
  3. 3. A snap-shot of the above process• They were all a series of technological shocks• But were delivered slowly, often over different generations• Now the same generation experiences several changes• The expected pace of such shocks in future is too fast for comfort and our ability to cope with changes
  4. 4. Characteristics of a Knowledge Economy• The distinction between ’useful’ and ‘useless’ knowledge is very thin• What you know is more important than what you have• Knowledge moving from the edge to core of business and economics• Whom you know is even more important; the power of networks
  5. 5. Rapid growth of information• In the 1930’s the world-wide information quantity doubled in 70 years• In the 1970’s this became 30 years• It is projected that by 2015 this doubling would happen every 11 hours• Every morning you could wake up obsolete
  6. 6. Why new set of skills is required in the knowledge economy?• Our object is to create winners• People who will be able to flourish and thrive in the knowledge economy• People who will be able to participate in a democracy and through building global consensus• The skills and competencies as well as attitudes and beliefs cannot be the same as that of earlier ages
  7. 7. Measures of success in the knowledge economy• Massification (reaching out to larger numbers)• More knowledge (transacted within the same time)• Higher quality experience ( by technology mediation)• Manifold enhancement of knowledge
  8. 8. Who flourishes and thrives..?• Poor struggling people work for the economy (try to get money for the work that they put in)• Flourishers have the economy working for them.(the intellectual capital they create gets them the money)
  9. 9. The shift• In the earlier economies,because of the importance of financial capital,naturally the rich would get richer• In the knowledge economy,those who are good in creating,packaging and distributing knowledge will get richer and there are almost equal opportunities for all
  10. 10. Some Challenging Problems:• All terrain vehicle movement without wheels• Baggage handling in flights• Simulation of businesses and Global economy• Prediction of Tsunami, Cyclones and Earthquakes• Ray Kurzweil believes that the technological advances made throughout the 21st century will provide means to reverse the aging process, cure any disease, and repair presently unrepairable injuries
  11. 11. But most important: EDUCATION• Transformational• Disruptive• Measurable• Scalable• Personalized• Especially education for behavioral change
  12. 12. Ingredients of the new model• Educational Informatics• Learner kinetics• Learning metrics• Mastery Learning• Nano-learning
  13. 13. Goals/objectives of education:• Helping the learner to be able to rise to the full height as a human being.• Making the learner a “well educated person” for the latter half of the 21st century.• “ Awakening the learner within”• Remove learning phobias• When the student(learner) is ready, the teacher will appear
  14. 14. Mathematics…• Mathematics is called the Queen of Sciences; sometimes also called the servant of science• But many children acquire a great fear of Mathematics• This fear ranges from anxiety, nervousness to extreme fear• Such extreme fear is called phobia
  15. 15. What does it mean to know Mathematics?• Thinking mathematically’ is something that everyone does. It involves:• problem-solving and decision-making;• logical reasoning;• communication (including using diagrams, charts, graphs and symbols);• making connections and recognising common characteristics;• using mathematical tools, including calculations and measures.
  16. 16. Common Misunderstandings Maths requires a good memory Maths is not creative Maths is always right or wrong There is a best way to do a maths problem Men are better than women
  17. 17. Response to numbers:
  18. 18. Symptoms of Maths Phobia in children:• breathlessness, • feeling sick,• dizziness, • shaking,• excessive sweating, • heart palpitations,• nausea, • inability to speak or• dry mouth, think clearly, • a fear of losing control,
  19. 19. Sources of misunderstandings and anxiety• Teachers – don’t like maths • Pass on their own attitudes – teach it as they learnt it, badly • As a closed, cold and uncreative subject – fail to distinguish different learning styles • Grasshoppers and inchworms ⇒ belief that failure to understand is the result of a lack of effort or attention • punish this ‘bad behaviour’.
  20. 20. The future of the teaching profession …..
  21. 21. The noble act of teaching…once a calling• Teachers are always a boon to society.• They not only hone the learners intellect and aptitude but also, create a well-rounded personality.• Teaching influences the mind and character and gives the satisfaction of sparking the light of knowledge and dispelling the clouds of ignorance.
  22. 22. Challenging and satisfying as well• Teaching is an interesting and challenging activity. It is not for the meek or faint of heart.• You can choose to teach very young children from pre-school through the elementary grades;• You can work with middle and high school students and specialize in the arts, sciences, math, or special education.
  23. 23. A teacher vs. a mere expert• An expert can do it;• A teacher can do it but also knows what it takes to progress from novice to expert• Those who can do, do.• Those who understand, teach.
  24. 24. OS for the human brain?• “There are hundreds of companies and thousands of people writing software for computers. What about the human computer? What about the human brain? ….We have got so used to our existing mental software that we see no fault or limitation in it….”. Edward de bono in ‘New thinking for the new millennium’
  25. 25. What is teaching’s main virtue?• The main virtue of the teaching profession is not its scientific basis• Rather it is the intense relationship between teacher and student• The practice of teaching is therefore traditional (tribal) art based on human relationships with only sporadic borrowing of science to bolster existing practice
  26. 26. Some present day challenges• Inclusive education: imparting quality education to increasing numbers…developing learning metrics• Moving from the art of teaching to the science of learning• Building in the students the capacity ‘to learn how to learn’• Adopting 21st century communication tools for enhanced learning experience
  27. 27. Criticality of educational research• Without a science base to support existing practice, the future of teaching as a profession may be in jeopardy• We need to conduct research that will directly improve teaching and learning• Document the effectiveness of our strategies
  28. 28. Goals of learning• Knowing the syllabus• Mainly recalling information• Application in predictable areas• Some laboratory work• Exams of several hours with a variety of question types• All paper and pen/pencil type
  29. 29. Examination performance• Mainly a Bell curve• Debate on whether we evaluate using marks or grade them• The examination can find out some of the things the child does not know, but not all of the things that the child knows
  30. 30. Potential for improvement• A student can demonstrate what he knows and where he stands on the developmental scale• He can attain the desired goals (Grade A) given a longer time to learn and ways and means to achieve mastery• The Bell curve can be History
  31. 31. Creating an engaged technology-enhanced learning experience• We are moving away from a mere (chalk and talk) and (spray and pray) lecture format to the creation of an interactive learning event
  32. 32. Managing a learning event• A properly managed learning event comprises a series of learning moments
  33. 33. Personalisation of the learning experience• Each such learning moment is unique to each learner and ICT enables its realisation
  34. 34. Multiple roles of a teacher• must be content expert,• a diagnostician,• a rescuer,• a patient communicator,• a manager and leader,• a student of human behavior.
  35. 35. Higher Order Thinking Skills• Problem Solving• Learning skills strategies• Creative innovative thinking• Decision making
  36. 36. Affective Skills and traits• Dependability/ Responsibility• Positive attitude towards work• Conscientiousness, Punctuality, efficiency• Interpersonal communication skills, co- operation, working as a team member
  37. 37. Affective skills and traits…• Self confidence, positive self image• Adaptability, flexibility• Enthusiasm, self motivation• Self-discipline self management• Honesty, integrity• Ability to work without supervision• Grooming, appropriate dress
  38. 38. Desired Soft Skills:• ICT Skills• Problem Solving Skills• Thinking Skills• Decision Making Skills• Leadership Skills• Entrepreneurship Skills• Time management
  39. 39. Some more desirable Skills:• Money Management• Working in Teams• Cross-cultural collaboration• Life-long Learning Skills• Visual Communication Skills• Information analysis skills (Analytics)• Building Confidence and self-esteem
  40. 40. Teachers as leaders in the knowledge economy…• Teachers will play the central role.. following the earlier success of the shopkeepers, traders, contractors, lawyers…• We need to be owners and creators of knowledge products not a mass market• Needs creativity, innovation on a continuous basis and not conformity and repetition
  41. 41. Need for a new education model• It makes sense, therefore, to assume that the graduates of todays schooling will need a different set of cognitive and learning skills reflecting the profound change that they will encounter.
  42. 42. The wow e-learning experience• Engagement: How will we get the learner fully engaged?• Curiosity: How will we harness the power of curiosity and exploration?• Simulation and Practice:How will we create opportunities?• Remediation: How can we provide remedial and extended learning content?• Coaching: Providing human & digital coaching.
  43. 43. The emergence of e-books and e-book readers and the future of text- books
  44. 44. E-book• something you read on screen instead of on paperWith E-books,• you can load books onto small computers like PDAs to read while youre on the move.
  45. 45. E-book pluses An e-book can give you lots more than a paper book, like you can• read an e-book on your desktop or laptop computer.• mark your page with an electronic bookmark and jump straight to it when you open the book• click on a word and find out what it means using e- books that have built in dictionaries.
  46. 46. Drawbacks of print mediaDrawbacks of print media include:i. linear presentationii. limitation on amount of materialiii. inability to demonstrate motion or timeiv. not adaptable to different learning stylesv. does not respond to user inputvi. limited interactivity
  47. 47. Advantage of using e-books The limitations of using printed books can be overcome with an electronic textbook.With an electronic media, learners can:• interact with graphs• manipulate equations• browse extensive photo galleries• use videos and animations to explore motion and temporal change• get immediate feedback on quizzes and review activities• electronically search the document
  48. 48. A few more advantagesIn addition, a variety of activities can also be incorporated:• review modules• remedial lessons• pre-lab assignments• lab activities• post-lab lessons• in-depth follow-up sessions• extra credit activities• study-aids
  49. 49. What a Student Needs to Use an eTextbook? To use an eTextbook, students must have access to:• a computer with CD-ROM / DVD;• a Web browser;• QuickTime player;• the Flash plug-in; and• Acrobat Reader
  50. 50. The Future of E-Textbooks• textbooks available on CD-ROM• students start using their laptops to read interactive Web-based textbooks enhanced with multimedia content surrounded by tools for communication and study.• a student reading an e-textbook on a computer screen can do more than just click on a word and get a dictionary definition.• audio and video plug-ins allow for pronunciation guides and clips of lectures.• other functions enable students to highlight, type notes in the margin of the text, take quizzes, and interact with their professors.
  51. 51. Mobile learning: the emerging paradigm
  52. 52. Definitions• “M-Learning is the intersection of mobile computing and e- learning: accessible resources wherever you are, strong search capabilities, rich interaction, powerful support for effective learning, and performance-based assessment.• “A new m-learning architecture will support creation, brokerage, delivery and tracking of learning and information contents, using ambient intelligence, location-dependence, personalisation, multi-media, instant messaging (text, video) and distributed databases”.• “Three ways learning can be considered mobile “learning” it is mobile in terms of space; it is mobile in different areas of life; it is mobile with respect of time”.
  53. 53. Mobile learning: the emerging paradigm• PDA’s and mobile phones are merging, so one possibility for the m-learning device is the “Smart Phone” that is both a mobile phone and mobile personal computer.• the mobile phone approach has the advantage that connectivity is passed from cell to cell. Even with competing standards (CDMA, TDMA, GSM etc.) a GSM mobile phone can effectively be used world wide and can be used without significant interruption while travelling from home to school or to work.
  54. 54. Technical requirements• Authoring tools for content capture and conversion for mobile delivery;• Mobile games and simulation templates;• Mobile learning content management systems that download and manage a repository of mobile content;• Mobile learning management systems to track mobile learning use;• Enterprise application integration tools such as CRM and HRIS.
  55. 55. Business requirements• The feasibility of delivery of learning materials through mobile devices.• The identification of learning contexts and activities appropriate to mobile technologies.• The development of pilots to explore how technologies can best support life long learning.• The identification of the means and methods for delivery of mobile learning in a commercially sustainable way.
  56. 56. Pedagogical considerations1.Urgency of learning need2.Initiative of knowledge acquisition3.Mobility of learning setting4.Interactivity of learning process5.Situated ness of instructional activities6.Integration of instructional content.
  57. 57. M-Learning: The paradigm shift The new paradigm is more proactive in pushing information to people in the following ways:• From courseware to performance-ware• From course management to business workflow• From instructional design to performance-based design• From mouse-and-click to pen-and-voice interface• From centralized server to peer-to-peer networks
  58. 58. What is meant by e-learning 1.0?• eLearning 1.0, is actually the technologically supported variant of traditional knowledge distribution, the virtual extension of textbooks and classroom teaching.• Even in this environment, learning remained a passive process, managed from above or outside.• The formalized, centralized, bureaucratic world of education of industrialized societies was extended into a digital environment.
  59. 59. Learning 1.0 - definition• Learning 1.0 is delivering learning an educator believes a student to need or requires a student to have in a format that the educator believes is effective. This in no way implies that the student is getting the information they actually need to do their job faster, easier or effectively.
  60. 60. Common pieces of Learning 1.0• Instructor Lead Training (ILT)• E.Learning• Learning Management System(LMS)
  61. 61. ILT• ILT is classroom training on a chosen subject.• Due to the web, ILT has taken on some changes.• Now, these classes can be prepared and delivered online.• Major providers of such technology are, iLinc, Webex, Centra, Microsoft and Interwise.
  62. 62. E-learning• E-Learing is a generally interactive, computer based type of training.• Any topic can be converted into E.Learning from machine repair to programming skills.• E.Learning content designers use tools, ranging from Flash and Java, to end user authoring tools such as Lectora and Composica to create this content.• Usually, the content is engineered to meet one of two industry standards AICC or SCORM.
  63. 63. LMS• The LMS serves as the tool for distributing, tracking and reporting on training for the company.• This is the main tool of choice to facilitate learning for most companies today.• Major LMS providers are Saba, KnowledgePlanet,, SumTotal and Plateau.
  64. 64. Web 2.0Using web 2.0,• Digital natives of web 2.0 have not only searched for information on the web, but have also become content providers themselves.• The areas and tools of interactivity have become practically unlimited.• Personal and institutional information is freely available on the World Wide Web and the technology exists to allow individuals to harness collective knowledge and entertainment portals for their own purposes.
  65. 65. Web 2.0• Students can create and exchange content in a cooperative way, within networks of their contemporaries.• Blogs, forums, chats, wikis, newsgroups, and networks of friends and acquaintances provide an immense communal information production and exchange framework.
  66. 66. Affect of learning 2.0• In the field of eLearning 2.0, knowledge chosen, organised, distributed and controlled by the authorities has been replaced by personal information management based on immediate needs.• The boundary between learning and teaching becomes less distinct.• For the “download generation”, the Internet is not a medium for learning; it is the platform and the centre of personal study.• In the milieu of eLearning 2.0, the opportunity exists to reconstruct an organic learning environment
  67. 67. Further changes due to e-learning 2.0• High-speed broadband Internet (access) has become accessible to large numbers of people, significantly increasing the rate of data acquisition.• Information has become ubiquitous and can be reached with mobile tools.• As open source software has spread, so content management is very cheap and simple making possible the creation of personalized e-portfolios .• A wide range of new, free tools is at our disposal: blogs, wikis, file exchange programs, forums and tools that make collaborative content development possible.
  68. 68. Further changes due to e-learning 2.0• Freely usable content has appeared (open courseware, open content, CCL – Creative Common License)• New software supporting social networks is spreading rapidly.• The changeable, uncertain employment situation and the rapid technological changes that school curricula cannot follow have brought about the political challenge of “lifelong learning”.
  69. 69. Use by digital native learnersUses of e-learning 2.0 by Digital Native Learners• Prefer receiving information quickly from multiple multimedia sources.• Prefer parallel processing and multitasking.• Prefer processing pictures, sounds and video before text.• Prefer random access to hyper linked multimedia information.
  70. 70. Use by digital native learnersUses of e-learning 2.0 by Digital Native Learners (contd..)• Prefer to interact/network simultaneously with many others.• Prefer to learn “just-in-time.”• Prefer instant gratification and instant rewards.• Prefer learning that is relevant, instantly useful and fun.
  71. 71. The future of learning…Learning 3.0 and beyond
  72. 72. Learning 3.0• One of the most important realities of today’s students is that they don’t see themselves as passive recipients (consumers) of information.• They are content and knowledge producers with a plethora of outlets for self-publishing (e.g. YouTube, MySpace, Facebook, Wikipedia, Blogger, etc.). Whether we’re ready for it or not, whether we like it or not, learning is increasingly situated in a “participatory culture”
  73. 73. The heart of “Education 3.0• Utilizing distributed computation and knowledge resources in a learning network that leverages both computation and human power to maximize opportunities and potential for learning.
  74. 74. Learning 3.0Technology Implications on Pedagogy & Learning StylesEducation …“should be reversed to conform to the learner, rather than thelearner to the system.” -UK based NESTA FutureLabs study by Supra Manohar, Executive VP-GBD Emantras,
  75. 75. Web 3.0 What does it mean?We have not defined Web 2.0 and now there is talk of 3.0… “The Dataweb”, semantic web – seamless interoperability and content reading by software agents (RDF, OWL) Collaboration and collaborative filtering – FaceBook, YouTube, and web THE BEST tagging (Flickr,, etc) WE CAN Ubiquitous connectivity - PDA’s, handheld games, Wii, etc. DESCRIBE 3D Environments – Second Life, there is even a Web3D Consortium… Network computing – software as a service, “cloud” computing … and much more it has not all been defined need to Google to see what happened today.
  76. 76. Learning Strategies & Pedagogy Generally accepted learning modalities are classified below.Behaviorism, feedback and reinforcementConstructivism, rich media, simulations andimmersive environmentsInformal or Situated learning, using education in“context aware” environments (in the field) Note: A good article addressing learning styles is “FromCollaborative learning, recording and sharing Learning Styles to Learning Skills: the executive skillsinstantly profile”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol 10, Number 5, 1995. s/Excecutive-skills-profile.pdf
  77. 77. Learning 3.03.0 Technologies Learning TechnologiesLEARNING DESIGN Social Technologies Blogs Shareable environments Peer networks IM Collaborative Tools Wikipedia Google Docs Tagging, Ubiquitous Devices PDAs Wii iPods Etc.. Simulation, Visualization & Gaming Environments Wii for simulations Educational gaming Second Life Gapminder Access Search tools Desktop connectivity
  78. 78. Learning 3.0 Implications of Technology BEHAVIOURISM & COLLABORATIVE LEARNING Ability to create collaboratively (student & teacher) authored resources Reinforcement when learners are receptive and in modes they may be more open to (peer reinforcement) Collective participation to tag and provide resources that may be relevant 1. Allegheny College on MySpace, students and the college also has a MySpace page ADOPTION 2. Mixxer is a site that allows language students to find and connect with voice-partners on the net with VoIP
  79. 79. Learning 3.0 Implications of Technology CONSTRUCTIVISM Mobile devices allow content portability into “context aware” environments Multimedia delivers 20 times more “minutes on the message” Expanding cultural and societal experiences 1. University of Minnesota modified the game Neverwinter Nights to practice investigative reporting 2. Play2Train is a Second Life environment for bio-terrorism training ADOPTION 3. Bradley University has a course on Second Life on field research methods
  80. 80. Learning 3.0 Implications of Technology INFORMAL & SITUATED LEARNING Mobile devices allow content portability into “context aware” environments Access to educative material via multiple devices without barriers to access Capturing learning moments and environments 1. SF Museum of Modern Art allows visitors to use their mobile phones to listen to podcasts Adoption of the audio tour ADOPTION Adoption 2. Montclair State University students with GPS and web-enabled phones receive various academic, social, wellness, and security services
  81. 81. Learning 3.0 Implications of Technology UBIQUITOUS & LIFELONG (INFORMAL) LEARNING Driving content to the desktop (learning widgets) The ability to search and access learning bits (the SCORM holy grail) and text New forms of publishing text (eBooks for access and visualization tools like Gapminder bring statistical data to life) Expanding the participatory environments (shared editorial tools like Google Docs and Wikis) Adoption is a widget platform driving learning to the desktop 1. HALO ADOPTION 2. GAM3R 7H3ORY is a networked book with online prepublication format where readers can add comments
  82. 82. Web 3.0 What does it mean? Be aware of the tools being used it will help in designing your learning material Multimedia and innovative learning content is almost a requirement not a luxury No need to adopt all tools but adopt ones that are popular HOW DOES ONE and get used a lot ADOPT AND Realize that the learning moments are no longer restricted, IMPLEMENT knowledge inquiry is woven into our lifestyle Access is very important, making it available ensures consumption Make it available in multiple formats (we can today) and allow the learner to create the most appropriate and conducive environment
  83. 83. Education“…finite opportunity amidst infinite possibilities…”
  84. 84. References & Resources“Are you ready for Mobile Learning?” Joseph Rene Corbeil and Maria Elena Valdes-Corbeil, EducauseQuarterly Number 2 2007New Media Consortium, 2007 Horizon Report, January 23 2007Web 3.0, Wikipedia article Baird, Musings on Social Media, Gen Y, Education Technology, Community & other Stuff (at … and many more…
  85. 85. Clayton Christensen :Class Disrupted • Filled with fascinating case studies, scientific findings, and unprecedented insights on how innovation must be managed, Disrupting Class will open your eyes to new possibilities, unlock hidden potential, and get you to think differently. Professor Christensen and his coauthors provide a bold new lesson in innovation that will help you make the grade for years to come.
  86. 86. Jay Matthews :Work Hard Be nice • Work Hard. Be Nice provides a fast-paced, engrossing and heartening story of two phenomenally dedicated teachers who demonstrate that low- income students, if given the right environment, can thrive academically.
  87. 87. Guy Claxton: What’s the point of school • Whats the Point of School? takes the reader beyond the sterile debates about City Academies and dumbed- down exams in order to reveal the key responsibility of education today: to create students who enjoy learning.
  88. 88. Peter Senge: Schools that Learn • Deep learning cycle • Five learning disciplines • Shared vision process • Virtuous spiral
  89. 89.