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Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
Open2012 global-jugaad-commons
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Open2012 global-jugaad-commons

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  • Tata Nano
  • Narratives are stories – medium and metaphor.
  • How do we know what the various rationales for innovations are? We read through all the narratives and came up with a coding scheme.
  • Diversity of Innovations: Example M-PESA, Biogas, Local Medicine and Banana Alcohol – General Overview; No family or household level biogas systems – picking it up at the school but its not really a practical innovation.
  • Among the 230 participants across East Africa, only 12 participants mentioned time as a constraining factor that made something innovative in their eyes, and of those, 10 participants mentioned it in the context of improving their quality of life – not a function of livelihood. It is also interesting to note that 10 out of these 12 participants were from Kenya, and all 12 were from urban areas. From experience working in East Africa, time has been a really fluid concept and our research only served to reinforce our opinions. Value Propositions
  • Strong influence of “western culture” on urban youth – validated in all four countries. Youth in urban areas were more likely to talk about large, community-scale innovations as opposed to youth in rural areas who talked about more local innovations. The interviews conducted at university campuses proved that with the more formally educated respondents, an obvious “occidental” influence was felt with more people talking about technological innovations. For instance, respondents from Nairobi talked about BMW concept cars running on hydrogen and water fuel, and about solar-powered cell phone chargers.
  • It was observed that men were more likely to talk about innovations that they had come to know about through mass media or outreach whereas women talked about innovations that were more close to heart. For instance, in Kenya, out of 71 semi-urban and urban respondents, only 10% of female respondents spoke about large scale innovations that pertained to the larger community whereas almost 60% of men spoke about such innovations. The statistics are really similar for Tanzania. We expected that this divide would exist given the traditional roles assigned to women in society, and we are analyzing this data further to really reflect on how the average East African woman’s perception of innovation varies from men’s.
  • Livelihood vs. Culture – Reflects on the historical background of Kenya and Tanzania. With a predominant focus on business development larger investments in infrastructure development, Kenyans often talked about livelihood related innovations – Tanzania talked more about innovations pertaining to culture. In a manner reflecting tribal identity and cohesion, Tanzanians also attributed to hearing about innovations from family and ancestors and often took a vehement stand to protect their family secrets, whereas Kenyans adopted a more mass media outlook.
  • Rural area has a focus of resource constraints.
  • A particularly interesting trend noticed in India pertained to the distinction of corporate and individual innovation by the respondents. Not a single respondent in India gave an example of a technology innovation and when prompted with a question pertaining to the iPhone as an innovation, the respondents said that they didn’t consider the iPhone a real innovation since it was made by a company and hence represented corporate innovation, which they distinguished as a separate form of innovation. Corporate innovation was somehow considered second-hand or inferior to individual/community innovation.
  • A strong link was found between the youth perception of innovation and the concept of indigenous knowledge. Often youth spoke about methods their grandparents and ancestors had passed on to them as a means for solving a common problem. For example, producing chicken coops with grass instead of steel when steel was too expensive to produce, or using food coloring as a substitute for eggs in baking cakes when eggs were scarce. Youth often protected this information fiercely and guarded them as family secrets and were often unwilling to disclose details.
  • 9 out of 12 participants who considered several forms of local medicine to be innovative considered them to be innovative because it helps them save money that they would spend in going to “western” doctors.
  • Though several respondents talked about material innovations, few of them discussed what we call thought innovations. For instance, a juakali worker in Kenya told us that cross-cultural communication was the most innovative thing he had come across – the very fact that an international multi-racial team could be talking with him in his country and inquiring about his point of view was, to him, extremely innovative. Roughly 1 in 5 Kenyans also spoke about a community-related innovation instead of individual innovations. This was consistent across both men and women respondents.
  • When we were conducting interviews, we observed a group of children who would create toys such as the “barudi,” a miniature explosive that uses a matchstick head to pop and make a “bang” sound, and the “bundooki,” a toy gun made from a wooden stick, the cap of a pen, a piece of string and a rubber band. These toys were made by watching and learning from their friends, and these innovations were meant to be sources of entertainment, which was a theme of innovation that was seldom observed amidst the youth participants of the study.
  • When we were conducting interviews, we observed a group of children who would create toys such as the “barudi,” a miniature explosive that uses a matchstick head to pop and make a “bang” sound, and the “bundooki,” a toy gun made from a wooden stick, the cap of a pen, a piece of string and a rubber band. These toys were made by watching and learning from their friends, and these innovations were meant to be sources of entertainment, which was a theme of innovation that was seldom observed amidst the youth participants of the study.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Global Jugaad Commons Cross Pollinating Concepts Across Cultures Shruthi Baskaran, Gunjan Malekar, Khanjan MehtaHumanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship (HESE) Program The Pennsylvania State University
    • 2. HESE: Convergence for Impact Affordable Greenhouses Solar Food Dehydrator Mashavu Wishvast
    • 3. “Innovation” 3
    • 4. Indigenous Innovation 4
    • 5. Innovation: Youth Perspective Focus on sustainability over sustenance
    • 6. Jugaad Resource Constrained InnovationJugaad (India) | Bricolage (France) | Hack (USA)
    • 7. Trickle-Up Innovation Resource Constrained Innovation: Frugal Engineering
    • 8. Global Jugaad Commons• Youth perceptions of innovation• Cultural and contextual mechanisms influencing innovation• Perceptions across communities, cultures and countries• Creating repository of indigenous innovation s
    • 9. Methodology Country Number of Interviews Region/Partner Tanzania 120 Tumaini University, Makumira Campus Kenya 109 Children and Youth Empowerment Center, Nyeri India 27 Maninagar, Ahmedabad Nicaragua 25 Universidad Catolica Redemptoris Mater, UNICA University Coding Review and Interviews Transcription Final Coding (2 Members) (2 Members) Semi Structured Interviews
    • 10. Methodology Themes, Rationales and Cultural/Contextual Factors
    • 11. Basic Demographics Gender Distribution Formal Schooling Levels > 12 years Male 8 to 12 years Female < 8 years Age Distribution Categories of Innovation Science/Tech 18-21 Social Science 22-26 Commerce 27-30 Arts Other
    • 12. Innovation Spectrum Diverse | Unexpected | Reflective of Culture
    • 13. Rationales for Innovation Helps make/save money Fish Rearing Helps solve problems Local Medicine Livelihood Simplifies work Sawing Machine Saves time Mobile Phones Reuses resources to produce value Bone Necklaces Reuses resources to produce value Banana Bark PlatesConvenience and Quality of Life Saves time Computers Improves accessibility to resources Biogas Preserves Culture Banana Wine Social Development Improves community Community Sports Entertainment Lawnmower RacingPure Knowledge Advancement NASA Environmental Recycling Aesthetics Maasai Clothes Self-Actualization Mentoring Youth 8 Themes | 15 Rationales | 300 Innovations
    • 14. Time: A Fluid Concept
    • 15. Urban Youth and Western Culture Urban Youth and Western Culture
    • 16. Gender Disparity Gender Disparity
    • 17. Business Development vs. Culture
    • 18. Vertical Farming
    • 19. Community Sports
    • 20. Corporate vs. Individual Innovations
    • 21. Indigenous Knowledge
    • 22. Traditional Medicine: Mitishamba
    • 23. Thought Innovations
    • 24. Children: Prolific Innovators
    • 25. So What?

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