Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Application of Function Mapping to Find Biological Solutions Darrell Kleinke1, Jonathan Weaver1, and Terri Lynch-Caris2 1 University of Detroit Mercy Mechanical Engineering Department 2Kettering University Industrial Engineering Department
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Outline • Function Mapping Overview • Biomimicry Connection • Conclusions and Next Steps
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Three primary “flows” are defined and generally accepted in the literature Material Material Energy Energy Action Signal Signal
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Simple Example of Material Flow Material Material Toothpaste Toothpaste Squeeze In the Tube Material Tube
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Simple Example of Material Flow Material Material Toothpaste Toothpaste Squeeze In the Tube Material Tube Boa Constrictor asociacionecoanimal.blogspot.com
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Simple Example of Material Flow Material Material Squeeze Toothpaste Extrude Toothpaste Separate In the Tube Material Apply Tube
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Simple Example of Material Flow Using more generalized names for materials Material Material Squeeze Dispense Tooth Cleaner Tooth Cleaner Extrude In a dispenser Apply Material Separate Dispenser
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Simple Example of Material Flow Material Material Squeeze Tooth Cleaner Dispense Tooth Cleaner In a dispenser Extrude Apply Material Energy Separate Dispenser Human Force How can this be linked to biological solutions if the user is not aware of the biology?
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Short list of flow types MATERIALS ENERGY (units) SIGNALS (types) Single Isolated element Mechanical Mechanical (Horsepower hp, (Tactile, visual, acoustic, pressure, force, kinetic / potential energy J, position) Light lm ) Multiple independent elements Electrical / Magnetic Electrical Examples: Independent solids, isolated (Watts/hr, emf) (voltage, current, charge, emf) gases, stratified liquids. Multiple combined elements Fluid Cognitive Examples: Conjoined solids, blended (Head loss) (taste, olfactory, emotion) gases, mixed liquids. Thermal (BTU) Chemical (electronvolts eV) Acoustic (Sound Pressure Level SPL)
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 No Standardized Actions (Yet) Row = Inflow Material (M) Energy Signal M+E M+S E+S M+E+S Column = (E) (S) Outflow Material (M) Store Convert Sense Cell 11 + Cell 11 Cell 12 + Cell 11 Combine Measure Cell 12 + Cell 13 + Disperse Cell 13 Cell 12 Change-state + Cell 13 Energy Store Store Sense Cell 21 + Cell 21 Cell 22 + Cell 21 (E) Combine Combine Measure Cell 22 + Cell 23 + Disperse Disperse Cell 22 Cell 22 Change-state Change-state + Cell 23 Signal Actuate Actuate Sense Cell 31 Cell 31 Cell 32 Cell 31 (S) Regulate Regulate Indicate + + + + Change Change Measure Cell 32 Cell 33 Cell 33 Cell 32 Form Form Display +Cell 33 M+E 11+21 12+22 13+23 11+12+ 11+13+ 12+13+ 11+12+ 21+23 31+33 22+23 13+21+ 22+23 M+S 11+31 12+32 13+33 11+31+ 11+13+ 12+13+ 11+12+ 12+32 31+33 32+33 13+31+ 32+33 E+S 21+31 22+32 23+33 21+22+ 21+23+ 22+23+ 21+22+ 31+32 31+33 32+33 23+31+ 32+33 M+E+S 11+21 12+22 13+23 11+12+ 11+13+ 12+13+ All cells 31 to 33 +31 +32 +33 21+22+ 21+23+ 22+23+ 31+32 31+33 32+33
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Example of function-nesting in a two layer hierarchy Material: Material: Tube Toothpaste In the Tube Squeeze Material: Toothpaste Material: Brush Signal: Energy: with paste Thought Flex Force Combine Material: Brush
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 A perspective from the literature Function mapping has not gained industry wide acceptance like some other techniques such as TRIZ. Dieter (2009): “There are weaknesses in using functional structures during conceptual design. A function structure is not a complete conceptual design. Even after developing a function structure, you still need to select devices, mechanisms, or structural forms to fulfill the function. There are no comprehensive catalogs of solution embodiments like those available in the German technical literature.”
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Example of Biomimicry Termite Mound Eastgate Center, Zimbabwe
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Another Example of Biomimicry Basking Shark Water-driven Turbine
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Use Function Mapping to Make Connections Camera Energy: Signal: Sense Light lm Voltage V Beetle Eye Energy: Signal: Sense Light lm Cognitive
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Process Issues Can be Mapped Nuclear Waste Material: Caesium Material: Capture Material: Harmless Sulphide Molecule Venus Flytrap Material: Flys Material: Capture Material: Helpless Venom Meal
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Conclusion • Function mapping has the potential to become the link between engineering design problems and biological solutions. • If standardized and codified, function mapping becomes easier to use and can represent a common practice that could cross numerous diverse engineering and biology disciplines. • Function maps can be formulated by engineer and biologist alike, and can become the common link to connect biomimicry and engineering design.
Biomimicry Tools NCIIA 2012 Special thanks to the Kern Family Foundation
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