Prologue I have been trained as an engineer. I am a believer in the engineering process. NeedCraft it into a problem statement tackle withcareful measurements, iterate, and improve into a painstakingly perfected design. But I became an engineer to help peopleBackground/interest in medical devcices, global health was an obvious directionHow?I have been and currently grapple with, the very issues that I will enumerate for you today regarding working on medical devices for developing markets with classical engineering training and a program geared for . So what this presentation does not offer you, is a perfectly optimized solution to a problem, but rather to offer us a common problem statement and an initial idea upon which to iterate.
As a student with no idea where to start, I throught the Gambia would be a good place. Clinical visits, interviews with patients, locals, and clinicians in both privately and government-funded clinicsMany of the ideas and metrics today come from a combination of first-hand experience, literature, and a little creativity. So in this incredibly complex multi-dimensional problem, how can we encourage and educate engineers to create medical devices that have hope for impact; or at the very least, leaving students feeling like they could go and tackle the world’s most intractable problems?
Just because the problems are different, doesn’t mean the same engineering process doesn’t applyIt’s important, first, to break down the problem.
This is the million, or more likely, multi-billion dollar question. If you find the answer, let Bill Gates know.
So let’s start to elaborate on the problem that students are facing. Ironically, many schools without dedicated global design programs are in and of themselves a sort of low resource environment for successful global health design because they lack the resources to help students succeed in a space where experience pays. We don’t all have Biodesign, yet.
Students have been solving problems with finite parameters, and structured tasks. When they finally hit their capstone?
But, as a good engineer,
Improved mechanisms of finding, searching, interpreting data
UN development indicatorsThe World Bank and other resources are available as well
Providing numbers to represent a very human problem risks just making the problem more abstract
First, and most important metric to begin. How many clinicians have you spoken to? Do you have advocates? If someone in your target market is excited about the idea, that’s the first important metric, and a good sign.
Misconception that many students have is that whatever they make has to be cheap – but that’s not actually the case. It doesn’t have to be. $38 is the entire savings of a family, or a month’s wagesDetermine how healthcare is delivered and then determining the value of the Time saved? Resources saved?
Another factor students underestimate is the tech savvy of developing areas. Nearly everyone has a mobile phone now,
From what I’ve seen of design teams and designs, the single most under-estimated factor is how overpowered clinics can be.
Now imagine the waiting room.
Furthermore, there’s a need for transparency. With a common language to discuss our failures,
Best Practices to Evaluate Student-led Design Projects for Global Health Technologies: Quantified metrics Molly Blank
Overview Problem Identification Students vs. the world Needs Leverage education, provide insight Concept Generation First Prototype Define metrics Test, feedback, iteration Problem Needs Concept generation First prototype Test, feedback
ExpectationThere must be an intuitive place to start, right? Problem
Problem Sources Inherent complexity Engineering education Institution limitationsProblem biodesign.stanford.edu
Engineers vs. the World Little scaffolding for Significant human factorshuman-centered design considerations Analytical Social, quality of life value difficult to quantify Misconceptions Highly dynamicChallenging enough in Generally international the same room… collaborations Problem
Problem StatementDespite growing interest and opportunities in globalhealth design, there is a disconnect between youngengineers’ educations and the expertise required to design a successful global health technology. Problem
Needs screening Allow students to understand the space in which they are designing Encourage good design Improve outcomes Educate Needs
Tools Information availability Visualizations WHO UW IHME World Bank healthmetricsandevaluation.org Concept generation
Quantified Metrics Advantages Challenges• Play to student Potential for abstraction strengths Choosing the most• Provide structure representative, valuable• Leverage existing for designs training Concept generation
Due Diligence Yes, health indicators are important Pathophysiology, epidemiology Disease state fundamentals Well established Don’t get stuck here Concept generation
Human Resources Put it in context Availability of medical professionals, Pittsburgh WHO – Average of 2.1 doctors per 10,000 people US census bureau says about 300,000 people in 2011 61 doctors by African region average First prototype
Allegheny General Hospital: 800Allegheny General Hospital Suburban Campus Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh Western Pennsylvania Hospital Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC Western Pennsylvania Hospital UPMC Cancer Centers Forbes UPMC Eye & Ear Institute Childrens Institute of Pittsburgh UPMC Mercy HealthSouth Harmarville Rehab UPMC Mercy South Side Outpatient Hospital UPMC Montefiore Jefferson Regional Medical Center UPMC Passavant LifeCare Hospitals of Pittsburgh UPMC Presbyterian Pittsburgh Specialty Hospital UPMC Shadyside Saint Clair Memorial Hospital UPMC St. Margaret Southwood Psychiatric Hospital UPMC Western Psychiatric Institute Allegheny Cancer Center
Moving Forward Adoption and support of the technology is the only metric needed for long-term success Ensures the iteration of the device Regardless of initial success
IterateTest, feedback, improve Test, feedback Squiggle by Damien Newman
Conclusion Encourage global health design Despite inherent challenges of global health compounded by engineering education Make expertise Create a common language, metrics Iterate, fail, improve
Thank You Dr. Jim Antaki, Antaki LabMRC the Gambia