Muhlenberg - Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry - Open 2011

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  • Constructivism (constructing knowledge) vs. Constructionism (constructing artifacts)
  • TODO: expand from notes in Hanson, Instructor’s Guide to POGIL
  • frequency : all-POGIL class, weekly POGIL sessions/sections, occasional experiments approach : consider effort to create, complete, modify, share, assess; cost & environmental impact - all paper: - powerpoint + paper: - web-based (e.g. Moodle): scaling : learner:teacher ratio – extend through process & assistants language/culture : teacher-student and student-student control : learners are thinking, and may ask questions or find problems – must be ready to respond development :
  • Muhlenberg - Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry - Open 2011

    1. 1. Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning for Entrepreneurship Clif Kussmaul, PhD Associate Professor of Computer Science Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA [email_address] NCIIA 2011
    2. 2. Student learning is enhanced by a variety of factors: <ul><li>work in teams </li></ul><ul><li>combine content & process </li></ul><ul><li>construct knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>follow learning cycles </li></ul><ul><li>connect multiple concepts & representations </li></ul><ul><li>receive prompt, regular feedback </li></ul><ul><li>reflect on process & progress </li></ul>
    3. 3. Teams & processes help students to learn from each other. <ul><li>Students teams learn, understand, & remember more. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes provide helpful scaffolding. </li></ul><ul><li>Students also learn process skills, such as communication & teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can answer each others’ questions; teacher answers more difficult questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to learn is to teach. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (www.pogil.org) <ul><li>Learners work in teams (typically 3-5) on scripted activities with questions that guide them through inquiries (investigations) which often model discovery & research, to help learners construct knowledge . </li></ul><ul><li>Teams follow processes with specific roles, steps, reports, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator circulates to monitor & support. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities & processes are designed to achieve content & process objectives . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Example: Project Scheduling (see paper & supporting docs) <ul><li>Estimate time to make a batch of cookies. </li></ul><ul><li>Study & organize steps in a recipe, resulting in a work breakdown structure . </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate time for each step, & implications. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify dependencies & sequence of steps, resulting in a Gantt chart . </li></ul><ul><li>Explore resource implications. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify steps that can’t & can be shifted, resulting in a critical path . </li></ul>
    6. 6. POGIL has evolved over time. <ul><li>David Hanson, Stony Brook University, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>series of 20+ NSF grants </li></ul><ul><li>originally in chemistry, spreading elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>regular workshops & regional meetings </li></ul><ul><li>useful resources & active community http://www.pogil.org </li></ul>
    7. 7. There is evidence that POGIL works. <ul><li>data from 3 experiments </li></ul><ul><li>lower student attrition </li></ul><ul><li>improved mastery of content </li></ul><ul><li>improved learning skills </li></ul><ul><li>better attitude & motivation </li></ul># format %A %B %C %D,F,W 1 pre: lecture 19 33 26 22 post: POGIL 24 40 26 10 2 pre: lecture 20 20 27 33 post: POGIL 29 35 24 12 3 pre: lecture 12 19 16 53 post: POGIL 9 32 31 28
    8. 8. Activities are designed with stages that form learning cycles (Karplus, Piaget). 1. Orient , motivate, prepare 2. Explore , observe, analyze 3. Form concepts via questions 4. Apply in exercises & problems 5. Close , reflect, assess induction deduction
    9. 9. Questions & problem solving move from simple to complex issues. <ul><li>Directed questions prompt exploration and develop context & confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent questions lead to formation of concepts . </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent questions encourage application & future exploration. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Reporting & meta-cognition help students learn how to learn. <ul><li>Reports help learners & teachers see & think about what happened in team. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting learners to think about their learning is key to becoming better learners. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Responsibility & evaluation provide incentives & avoid problems. <ul><li>Each student has a role, and roles rotate. </li></ul><ul><li>Students know they depend on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Free-loading is discouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the academic environment, reports may or may not be graded. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Example: Stage Gate Models for New Product Development (NPD) <ul><li>Explore set of NPD activities, consider expected costs, hit rates, & returns. </li></ul><ul><li>Sort activities into groups & sequence, resulting in a set of stages . </li></ul><ul><li>Consider costs & risks over time, and ways to minimize both. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop criteria to apply after each stage, resulting in a set of gates . </li></ul><ul><li>Re-consider expected costs, hit rates, returns. </li></ul>
    13. 13. In summary, POGIL uses 7 key components. <ul><li>Learning teams </li></ul><ul><li>Guided-inquiry activities </li></ul><ul><li>Questions to promote critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Individual responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Grades (when necessary) </li></ul>
    14. 14. POGIL has variations, pros & cons. <ul><li>Small & large courses (scales reasonably well). </li></ul><ul><li>Daily, weekly, or occasionally. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and/or technology for activities & reporting. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapts to varied languages & cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher as “guide on the side” not “sage on the stage”. </li></ul><ul><li>Harder to predict & control class. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires time & effort to design activities. </li></ul>
    15. 15. My experiences with POGIL are recent & exciting. <ul><li>ongoing interest in active learning </li></ul><ul><li>chemistry colleagues who use POGIL </li></ul><ul><li>POGIL workshop at ASEE 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>POGIL activities for soft computing in India </li></ul><ul><li>regional POGIL meeting 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>POGIL activities for other topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project management, e’ship, computer science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NSF TUES grant to develop & validate activities </li></ul><ul><li>possible reviewers & collaborators? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Work backwards to create POGIL activities. <ul><li>Choose the key concept(s) to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to apply the concept in order to evaluate mastery. </li></ul><ul><li>Design steps & key questions to guide learners as they explore toward concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to orient learners through motivation & background information. </li></ul><ul><li>Design reporting & reflection for closure . </li></ul><ul><li>Try the activity and revise as necessary. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Questions & Discussion & Evaluation <ul><li>Clif Kussmaul [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>The POGIL Project http://www.pogil.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanson. Instructor’s Guide to POGIL. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanson. Designing POGIL Activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer 2011: Regional POGIL Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invaluable to get started </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eberlein, Kampmeier, Minderhout, et al. (2008) Pedagogies of engagement in science: A comparison of PBL, POGIL, and PLTL. Biochemistry & Mol. Bio. Education 36(4):262–273 </li></ul>

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