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Personality, Perception,    and Attribution
Variables Influencing            Individual Behavior          P   The Person• Skills & abilities                     E    ...
Propositions of           Interactional Psychology∗ Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional  interaction betw...
Definition of PersonalityPersonality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that  influences an individual’s behavior
Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down  behavior patterns into observable traitsPsycho...
Big Five Personality TraitsExtraversion        Gregarious, assertive,                    sociableAgreeableness       Coope...
Personality Characteristics        in Organizations           Locus of Control  Internal                    External I con...
Personality Characteristics             in OrganizationsSelf-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to ac...
Personality Characteristics     in Organizations          Self-Esteem      Feelings of Self Worth    Success tends    self...
Personality Characteristics             in Organizations                   Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from peop...
Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self                                      High-selfmonitors                                ...
Personality Characteristics           in OrganizationsPositive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the  positi...
Personality Characteristics     in Organizations             A strong          situation can     overwhelm the effects   o...
Personality Characteristics     in Organizations                   Strong            personalities            will dominat...
How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract  stimuliBehavioral Measures - p...
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator∗ Based on Carl Jung’s work  ∗ People are fundamentally different  ∗ People are fundamentally a...
MBTI Preferences      Preferences               RepresentsExtraversion Introversion         How one                       ...
Social Perception                    Barriers• Selective perception     • Projection• Stereotyping             • Self-fulf...
Percei          Social Perception                                Targ             ver Ch                           et Char...
Impression ManagementImpression Management – process by which individuals  try to control the impression others have of th...
Attribution TheoryAttribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint  the causes of their own behavior or that of othe...
Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someon...
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Personality, perception and attitudes

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  • Transcript of "Personality, perception and attitudes"

    1. 1. Personality, Perception, and Attribution
    2. 2. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior P The Person• Skills & abilities E The Environment • Personality • Organization • Perceptions • Work group • Attitudes • Job •Values • Personal life • Ethics B Behavior B = f(P,E)
    3. 3. Propositions of Interactional Psychology∗ Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between person and situation∗ Person—active in process ∗ Changed by situations ∗ Changes situations∗ People vary in many characteristics∗ Two situational interpretations ∗ The objective situation ∗ Person’s subjective view of the situation
    4. 4. Definition of PersonalityPersonality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
    5. 5. Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
    6. 6. Big Five Personality TraitsExtraversion Gregarious, assertive, sociableAgreeableness Cooperative, warm, agreeableConscientiousness Hardworking, organized, dependableEmotional stability Calm, self-confidant, coolOpenness to Creative, curious,experience cultured Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
    7. 7. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what People andhappens to me! circumstances control my fate!
    8. 8. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsSelf-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectivelySources of self-efficacy ∗ Prior experiences and prior success ∗ Behavior models (observing success) ∗ Persuasion ∗ Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
    9. 9. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends self-esteem to increase Failure tends to decrease self-esteem
    10. 10. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from people & situations∗ High self monitors ∗ Low self monitors ∗ flexible: adjust behavior ∗ act from internal states according to the situation rather than from and the behavior of others situational cues ∗ can appear unpredictable ∗ show consistency & inconsistent ∗ less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback
    11. 11. Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self High-selfmonitors monitors Get promoted Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central  positions in social networks Change employers  Self-promote Make a job-related geographic move Demonstrate higher levels of managerial  self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
    12. 12. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsPositive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
    13. 13. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
    14. 14. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
    15. 15. How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
    16. 16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator∗ Based on Carl Jung’s work ∗ People are fundamentally different ∗ People are fundamentally alike ∗ People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment∗ Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
    17. 17. MBTI Preferences Preferences RepresentsExtraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
    18. 18. Social Perception Barriers• Selective perception • Projection• Stereotyping • Self-fulfilling prophecies• First-impression error Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
    19. 19. Percei Social Perception Targ ver Ch et Chara • Fam a cteristic iliarity w racteristics • Physic al appea s • Attitu ith targ • Verba rance des/Mo et l commu • Self- od • Nonve nication Conce rbal cue• Cogn pt • Intenti s itive str ons ucture Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
    20. 20. Impression ManagementImpression Management – process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them ∗ Name dropping ∗ Appearance ∗ Self-description ∗ Flattery ∗ Favors ∗ Agreement with opinion
    21. 21. Attribution TheoryAttribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of othersInformation cues for attribution information gathering ∗ consensus ∗ distinctiveness ∗ consistency
    22. 22. Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behaviorSelf-serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes

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