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Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
Personality, perception and attitudes
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Personality, perception and attitudes

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    • 1. Personality, Perception, and Attribution
    • 2. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior P The Person• Skills & abilities E The Environment • Personality • Organization • Perceptions • Work group • Attitudes • Job •Values • Personal life • Ethics B Behavior B = f(P,E)
    • 3. Propositions of Interactional Psychology∗ Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between person and situation∗ Person—active in process ∗ Changed by situations ∗ Changes situations∗ People vary in many characteristics∗ Two situational interpretations ∗ The objective situation ∗ Person’s subjective view of the situation
    • 4. Definition of PersonalityPersonality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
    • 5. Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
    • 6. Big Five Personality TraitsExtraversion Gregarious, assertive, sociableAgreeableness Cooperative, warm, agreeableConscientiousness Hardworking, organized, dependableEmotional stability Calm, self-confidant, coolOpenness to Creative, curious,experience cultured Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
    • 7. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what People andhappens to me! circumstances control my fate!
    • 8. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsSelf-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectivelySources of self-efficacy ∗ Prior experiences and prior success ∗ Behavior models (observing success) ∗ Persuasion ∗ Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
    • 9. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends self-esteem to increase Failure tends to decrease self-esteem
    • 10. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from people & situations∗ High self monitors ∗ Low self monitors ∗ flexible: adjust behavior ∗ act from internal states according to the situation rather than from and the behavior of others situational cues ∗ can appear unpredictable ∗ show consistency & inconsistent ∗ less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback
    • 11. Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self High-selfmonitors monitors Get promoted Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central  positions in social networks Change employers  Self-promote Make a job-related geographic move Demonstrate higher levels of managerial  self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
    • 12. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsPositive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
    • 13. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
    • 14. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
    • 15. How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
    • 16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator∗ Based on Carl Jung’s work ∗ People are fundamentally different ∗ People are fundamentally alike ∗ People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment∗ Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
    • 17. MBTI Preferences Preferences RepresentsExtraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
    • 18. Social Perception Barriers• Selective perception • Projection• Stereotyping • Self-fulfilling prophecies• First-impression error Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
    • 19. Percei Social Perception Targ ver Ch et Chara • Fam a cteristic iliarity w racteristics • Physic al appea s • Attitu ith targ • Verba rance des/Mo et l commu • Self- od • Nonve nication Conce rbal cue• Cogn pt • Intenti s itive str ons ucture Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
    • 20. Impression ManagementImpression Management – process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them ∗ Name dropping ∗ Appearance ∗ Self-description ∗ Flattery ∗ Favors ∗ Agreement with opinion
    • 21. Attribution TheoryAttribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of othersInformation cues for attribution information gathering ∗ consensus ∗ distinctiveness ∗ consistency
    • 22. Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behaviorSelf-serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes

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