2. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior P The Person• Skills & abilities E The Environment • Personality • Organization • Perceptions • Work group • Attitudes • Job •Values • Personal life • Ethics B Behavior B = f(P,E)
3. Propositions of Interactional Psychology∗ Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between person and situation∗ Person—active in process ∗ Changed by situations ∗ Changes situations∗ People vary in many characteristics∗ Two situational interpretations ∗ The objective situation ∗ Person’s subjective view of the situation
4. Definition of PersonalityPersonality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
5. Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
6. Big Five Personality TraitsExtraversion Gregarious, assertive, sociableAgreeableness Cooperative, warm, agreeableConscientiousness Hardworking, organized, dependableEmotional stability Calm, self-confidant, coolOpenness to Creative, curious,experience cultured Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
7. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what People andhappens to me! circumstances control my fate!
8. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsSelf-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectivelySources of self-efficacy ∗ Prior experiences and prior success ∗ Behavior models (observing success) ∗ Persuasion ∗ Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
9. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends self-esteem to increase Failure tends to decrease self-esteem
10. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from people & situations∗ High self monitors ∗ Low self monitors ∗ flexible: adjust behavior ∗ act from internal states according to the situation rather than from and the behavior of others situational cues ∗ can appear unpredictable ∗ show consistency & inconsistent ∗ less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback
11. Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self High-selfmonitors monitors Get promoted Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central positions in social networks Change employers Self-promote Make a job-related geographic move Demonstrate higher levels of managerial self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
12. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsPositive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
13. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
14. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
15. How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator∗ Based on Carl Jung’s work ∗ People are fundamentally different ∗ People are fundamentally alike ∗ People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment∗ Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
17. MBTI Preferences Preferences RepresentsExtraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
18. Social Perception Barriers• Selective perception • Projection• Stereotyping • Self-fulfilling prophecies• First-impression error Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
19. Percei Social Perception Targ ver Ch et Chara • Fam a cteristic iliarity w racteristics • Physic al appea s • Attitu ith targ • Verba rance des/Mo et l commu • Self- od • Nonve nication Conce rbal cue• Cogn pt • Intenti s itive str ons ucture Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
20. Impression ManagementImpression Management – process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them ∗ Name dropping ∗ Appearance ∗ Self-description ∗ Flattery ∗ Favors ∗ Agreement with opinion
21. Attribution TheoryAttribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of othersInformation cues for attribution information gathering ∗ consensus ∗ distinctiveness ∗ consistency
22. Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behaviorSelf-serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes