2. How do we communicate?Through various forms of rhetoric
3. What is rhetoric? It is the way we speak or write effectively.
4. Forms of rhetoric are called • Narrationrhetorical modes or • Descriptionrhetorical devices. • Comparison/Contrast • Classification/ProcessThere are (5) • Argument
5. What is thegeneral writing process? After making a decision about what you will write • Freewriting about, then you • Thesis draft (outline) should follow this • 1st draft, (2nd, 3rd) writing process: • Final draft essay
6. The process • Freewriting • Thesis Draft (outline) • The Essay
7. Freewriting Once you have a topic, this is the technique that will pull ideas out.Purpose of freewriting Freewriting is a method for developing a small hint of an idea into a fully grown one. Freewriting is a little like fishing - you cast out with your pen, and then you let the ideas swim to you... but they wont come if you dont start fishing for them!
8. Purpose cont’d The key to freewriting isPurpose of freewriting to not think in your head. Do not think before you start - just pick up a pen and write... write on the topic if you can, and if you cant, just write anything and try to get there eventually. Write full, flowing sentences (freewriting looks like paragraphs, not like a list.)
9. Purpose cont’d When you freewrite youPurpose of freewriting do not need to worry about correct punctuation, grammar or spelling. The point of this kind of writing is flow, not correctness. Dont re-read what youve written until after youve finished; if you worry about if theyre written down "right" then you are not letting them flow.
10. The process • Freewriting • Thesis Draft (outline) • The Essay
11. The ThesisDraft What is it?What are the steps in developing aproductive outline?
12. What is the thesis?The thesis statement – is the sentence(s) that sum up what the whole essay is about. It includes the main points that will be addressed. – is the last sentence of the first paragraph.
13. By all means, do not let writing an essay stress you out!!
14. The thesis draft allows you to determine how you will express the thoughts you have chosen to analyze. I. Introduction a. Introductory statement - b. Acknowledgement statement - c. Thesis statement - I. Body A. First Supporting Idea (Topic Sentence) Detail1. Detail2. Detail3. B. Second Supporting Idea (Topic Sentence) Detail1. Detail2. Detail3. C. Third Supporting Idea (Topic Sentence) Detail1. Detail2. Detail3. I. Conclusion A. Closing statement - B. Restate thesis -
15. The best process? I. Introduction a. Introductory statement2. Design your intro, b. Acknowledgement statementacknowledgment statement c. Thesis statementand thesis statement II. Body A. First Topic/Idea (Topic Sentence) Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 1. Design you main B. Second Topic/Idea (Topic Sentence) Detail 1 points Detail 2 Detail 3 C. Third Topic/Idea (Topic Sentence) Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 III. Conclusion3. Design your conclusion A. Closing statement B. Restate thesis C. Summary point(s)
16. Things to remember about designing your thesis draft (outline) • Begin with the middle, then go to the intro, then finally the conclusion. • Make sure you keep control of the ideas you are addressing. The key here is to stay on topic. • The better your thesis draft the easier it will be for you to write your essay.
17. The process • Freewriting • Thesis Draft (outline) • The Essay
18. The Traditional What is it? What are the steps in achieving a great essay?
19. The traditionalessay has five (5) paragraphs: Gonna tell ‘em Tell ‘em Told ‘em
20. Intro - Paragraph 1 Gonna tell ‘emThe introduction includes:• An introductory statement * Question, quote, statistic, interesting fact• An acknowledgement statement •If referring to a book, this statement acknowledges the type of writing, the title, the author, and what it is about. •If referring to a subject, it affirms the subject and the subject matter that is being addressed.• The thesis statement * This is the sentence(s) that sum up what the whole essay is about. It includes the main points that will be addressed. * It is the last sentence of the first paragraph.
21. • An introductory statement • An acknowledgement statement • The thesis statementSample Intro Paragraph For many, turning on the computer and checking for e-mail messages has become as much a part of the daily routine as a trip to the mailbox. In the essay, “Click and Send It,” by John Smith, the reader learns of the growing popularity of e-mail that makes many individuals wonder how they ever survived without it. E-mail has many advantages over regular mail, including speed, low cost, and convenience. Remember you can add more information to this paragraph in between the acknowledgement statement and the thesis statement, but it is important that these three elements are covered in this order
22. The body – Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4 Tell ‘emThe body is paragraphs 2, 3, and 4 :• Each paragraph begins with a topic sentence that responds to the ideas you indicated in your thesis statement.• You must support each topic sentence with details. Examples and direct quotes also provide excellent support.• Thoughts are expressed through the proper use of transitions that carry the reader from one idea to the next or from one paragraph to another.• End each paragraph with a concluding sentence that seals the idea being addressed.
23. Intro Paragraph For many, turning on the computer and checking for e-mail messages has become as much a part of the daily routine as a trip to the mailbox. The growing popularity of e-mail makes many individuals wonder how they ever survived without it . E- mail has many advantages over regular mail, including speed, low cost, and convenience. There is no denying that e-mail has many advantages over regular mail. The most obvious advantage isSample Body Paragraphs speed. Users can send e-mail around the world in a matter of minutes with no more effort than it takes to press a few keys on the computer. It is this speed that has led to our calling regular mail "snail mail." E-mail also has the advantage of being less expensive, for most people, than regular mail. Many people have access to e-mail for free through their work or school. While some people may pay for e-mail through an online service, there is no increase in cost relative to the number of messages sent. It is the same price to send one message to one person as it is to send messages back and forth all day or to a hundred people. Finally, if consumers consider the costs saved in long-distance phone bills in addition to the costs saved in postage, most e- mail users surely come out ahead. There is no question that e-mail is convenient. It allows users to send the same message to many people at the same time with little more effort than it takes to send a message to one person. When sending multiple copies of a message, users avoid the trouble of photocopying the letter, printing out additional copies, addressing envelopes, and posting the mail. E-mail is also convenient because it lends itself to an informal style that makes composing a message relatively easy; in addition, readers of e-mail tolerate more mistakes than readers of conventional mail, and their tolerance saves consumers time.
24. Conclusion - Paragraph 5 Told ‘emThe conclusion includes:• An a concluding statement * This is similar to the opening statement but is a reaffirming point.• A restatement of the thesis * This is a restatement of the thesis statement from the introduction sentence(s) that sum(s) up what the whole essay is about.
25. • A closing statement • The restatement of the thesisSample Conclusion Paragraph • Summary point(s) While e-mail gives users the ability to send messages with convenience, speed, and little expense, it lacks the personality and authority of regular mail. Luckily, however, senders should not always choose one over the other. Instead they should take advantage of both, using each to its best advantage: e-mail for quick notes, multiple mailings, and routine business correspondence; regular mail for personal messages and for formal or private business correspondence. Regular mail will always take a bit longer, but at times good things are worth waiting for. Remember you can add more information to this paragraph in between the restatement of the thesis, and the closing statement, but it is important that these three elements are covered. These elements can be written in any order.
26. Things to remember about essay writing • Avoid saying, “I am going to write about . . .” or “This essay is about . . .” Instead say: The information presented here will explain . . . or Presented here are . . . • Avoid contractions when possible• Try to avoid the use of you, we, us . . .when possible. It sets you up for vagueness. Be specific to the audience the point addresses. – No = Smith tells you about all the things that made the journey possible. – Yes = Smith informs the reader about all the things that made the journey possible.
27. Things to remember about essay writing• Remember that a paragraph must have a minimum of three sentences to be considered a paragraph.• Use transitional phrases to allow the reader to travel with your intent• Make sure to fully support your topic sentences and maintain control. A good thesis draft will ensure this.• Wrap your essay eloquently and without saying “In conclusion. . .”• Make sure you follow directions for completing your essay.