Embrology and Anatomy of Cardiovascular System
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Embrology and Anatomy of Cardiovascular System

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Embrology and Anatomy of Cardiovascular System Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cardiovascular System Embryology and Anatomy* Dr. Kalpana Malla MBBS MD (Pediatrics) Manipal Teaching Hospital Download more documents and slide shows on The Medical Post [ www.themedicalpost.net ]
  • 2. Embryonic Heart Development
    • The heart develops in the embryo during post-conception weeks 3 - 8
  • 3. Beginning Development
    • Early week post-conception: 2 endothelial tubes
    • Mid-week : endothelial tubes fuse to form a tubular structure
    • 28 days following conception: the single-chambered heart begins to pump blood
  • 4. Week 4
    • Heart has:
      • single outflow tract, the truncus arteriosus (divides to form aorta & pulmonary veins)
      • Single inflow tract, the sinus venosus (divides to form the superior and inferior vena cavae)
      • Single atrium
      • Single ventricle
      • AV canal begins to close
  • 5. Weeks 5
    • Week 5
    • AV canal closure complete
    • Formation of atrial and ventricular septums
    • Heart grow rapidly, and fold back on itself to form its completed anatomic shape
  • 6. Week 7
    • Ventricular septum fully developed
    • Coronary Sinus forms
    • Outflow tracts (aorta & pulmonary truck) fully separated
  • 7. 8 Weeks After Conception
    • By the end of the 8th week after conception the fetus has a fully developed 4-chambered heart
  • 8. Layers of Heart
    • Pericardium (most superficial)
    • – Visceral, parietal
    • Myocardium (middle layer)
      • Cardiac muscle
    • Endocardium (inner)
      • Endothelium
      • Lines the heart
      • Creates the valves
  • 9. Right Heart Chambers
    • Right Atrium (most of base of heart)
      • IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus – Rt atrium
      • Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle
      • Fossa Ovalis - on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale
  • 10. Right Heart Chambers
    • Right Ventricle
      • RA – TV – RV – Pulmonary Valve- pulmonary trunk - lungs
      • Trabeculae Carnae – muscle ridges along ventral surface
      • Papillary Muscle -cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae are anchored
      • Moderator Band- muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum
  • 11. Left Heart Chambers
    • Left Atrium
      • Lungs - 4 Pulmonary Veins –LA
      • Pectinate Muscles line only auricle
  • 12. Left Heart Chambers
    • Left Ventricle (apex of heart)
      • LA – mitral valve – LV – AV – aorta – body
      • Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae
      • No Moderator Band
  • 13. Heart Valves - heart sounds LUB DUP
  • 14. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub
    • Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve
      • 3 Cusps (flaps) - anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae
      • Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium
      • Closure of AV valve – 1 st heart sound
  • 15. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub
    • Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve
      • 2 cusps anchored in Left Ventricle by chordae tendinae
      • Functions same as Rt. AV valve
  • 16. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub
    • **Semilunar valves :
    • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: RV to Pulmonary Trunk
      • Aortic Semilunar Valve: LV to Aorta
      • 3 cusps
      • Closure of SV – 2 nd heart sound
  • 17. The Great Vessels and major branches
    • Aorta (from Left Ventricle)
    • Ascending
      • Coronary arteries
    • Aortic Arch
      • Brachiocephalic trunk
      • Left Common Carotid
      • Left Subclavian
    • Descending (Thoracic/Abdominal )
      • Many small branches to organs
  • 18. The Great Vessels
    • Pulmonary veins
    • - 4 into heart (lt atrium)
    • Pulmonary Trunk (from Rt Ventricle)
      • -2 Pulmonary Arteries into lungs
    • Inferior/Superior Vena Cava / Coronary sinus
  • 19. Flow of Blood
    • Deoxygenated - SVC+IVC, Coronary Sinus - enters RA - Tricuspid Valve - RV - Pulmonary Valve - Pulmonary trunk -> Pulmonary Arteries -> lungs
    • Oxygenated blood - 4 P Veins - LA - Bicuspid/Mitral Valve – LV – Aortic Valve - Aorta - body
  • 20. The Normal Heart
  • 21. Circulation
    • Coronary circulation – the circulation of blood within the heart
    • Pulmonary circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and lungs
    • Systemic circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and the cells of the body
  • 22. Fetal Circulation: main differences
    • 1. Presence of placental circulation
    • 2. Presence of ductus venosus – UV to IVC
    • 3. Absence of gas exchange in collapsed lungs
    • 4. Widely open foramen ovale
    • 5. Widely open ductus arteriosus
  • 23. Three Shunts of Fetal Circulation
    • Ductus Venosus (Ligamentum venosum)
    • - Oxygenated blood from placenta - fetal UV - IVC – RA - by passes liver
    • Foramen Ovale
    • - From RA to LA – by passes the RV,Pulmonary trunk - no blood to lungs
    • Ductus Arteriosus
      • Blood from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch
      • by passing lungs
  • 24. Fetal Circulation
    • Umbilical Vessels:
    • -2 Umbilical Arteries ( Medial Umbilical Ligaments) =deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta
      • 1 Umbilical Vein ( Ligamentum teres )= Oxygenated blood to fetus from placenta
  • 25. Fetal Circulation
      • Placenta - umbilical vein - ductus venosus –IVC – RA- foramen ovale –LA –LV – Aorta – systemic circulation
      • RA – RV – pulmonary trunk - ductus arteriosus – aortic arch - enter the systemic circulation, by passing the pulmonary circulation
  • 26. Fetal circulation before birth
    • Note :oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated blood in
    • Liver
    • IVC
    • rt. Atrium
    • Lt. Atrium
    • entrance of the ductus arteriosus into the descending aorta
  • 27. After Birth
    • Lungs expands with air and pulmonary vascular resistance falls. Pulmonary blood flow increases
    • The foramen ovale and ductus venosus close during the first day of life
    • The ductus arteriosus close during the first 24 – 72 hours of life
  • 28. Thank you Download more documents and slide shows on The Medical Post [ www.themedicalpost.net ]