Embrology and Anatomy of Cardiovascular System


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  • Embrology and Anatomy of Cardiovascular System

    1. 1. Cardiovascular System Embryology and Anatomy* Dr. Kalpana Malla MBBS MD (Pediatrics) Manipal Teaching Hospital Download more documents and slide shows on The Medical Post [ www.themedicalpost.net ]
    2. 2. Embryonic Heart Development <ul><li>The heart develops in the embryo during post-conception weeks 3 - 8 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Beginning Development <ul><li>Early week post-conception: 2 endothelial tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-week : endothelial tubes fuse to form a tubular structure </li></ul><ul><li>28 days following conception: the single-chambered heart begins to pump blood </li></ul>
    4. 4. Week 4 <ul><li>Heart has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single outflow tract, the truncus arteriosus (divides to form aorta & pulmonary veins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single inflow tract, the sinus venosus (divides to form the superior and inferior vena cavae) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AV canal begins to close </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Weeks 5 <ul><li>Week 5 </li></ul><ul><li>AV canal closure complete </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of atrial and ventricular septums </li></ul><ul><li>Heart grow rapidly, and fold back on itself to form its completed anatomic shape </li></ul>
    6. 6. Week 7 <ul><li>Ventricular septum fully developed </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Sinus forms </li></ul><ul><li>Outflow tracts (aorta & pulmonary truck) fully separated </li></ul>
    7. 7. 8 Weeks After Conception <ul><li>By the end of the 8th week after conception the fetus has a fully developed 4-chambered heart </li></ul>
    8. 8. Layers of Heart <ul><li>Pericardium (most superficial) </li></ul><ul><li>– Visceral, parietal </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium (middle layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocardium (inner) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the valves </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Right Heart Chambers <ul><li>Right Atrium (most of base of heart) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus – Rt atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossa Ovalis - on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Right Heart Chambers <ul><li>Right Ventricle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RA – TV – RV – Pulmonary Valve- pulmonary trunk - lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabeculae Carnae – muscle ridges along ventral surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papillary Muscle -cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae are anchored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderator Band- muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Left Heart Chambers <ul><li>Left Atrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs - 4 Pulmonary Veins –LA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectinate Muscles line only auricle </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Left Heart Chambers <ul><li>Left Ventricle (apex of heart) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LA – mitral valve – LV – AV – aorta – body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Moderator Band </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Heart Valves - heart sounds LUB DUP
    14. 14. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub <ul><li>Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Cusps (flaps) - anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure of AV valve – 1 st heart sound </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub <ul><li>Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cusps anchored in Left Ventricle by chordae tendinae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions same as Rt. AV valve </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub <ul><li>**Semilunar valves : </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: RV to Pulmonary Trunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic Semilunar Valve: LV to Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cusps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure of SV – 2 nd heart sound </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Great Vessels and major branches <ul><li>Aorta (from Left Ventricle) </li></ul><ul><li>Ascending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aortic Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brachiocephalic trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Common Carotid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Subclavian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descending (Thoracic/Abdominal ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many small branches to organs </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Great Vessels <ul><li>Pulmonary veins </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 into heart (lt atrium) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Trunk (from Rt Ventricle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-2 Pulmonary Arteries into lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior/Superior Vena Cava / Coronary sinus </li></ul>
    19. 19. Flow of Blood <ul><li>Deoxygenated - SVC+IVC, Coronary Sinus - enters RA - Tricuspid Valve - RV - Pulmonary Valve - Pulmonary trunk -> Pulmonary Arteries -> lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenated blood - 4 P Veins - LA - Bicuspid/Mitral Valve – LV – Aortic Valve - Aorta - body </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Normal Heart
    21. 21. Circulation <ul><li>Coronary circulation – the circulation of blood within the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and the cells of the body </li></ul>
    22. 22. Fetal Circulation: main differences <ul><li>1. Presence of placental circulation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Presence of ductus venosus – UV to IVC </li></ul><ul><li>3. Absence of gas exchange in collapsed lungs </li></ul><ul><li>4. Widely open foramen ovale </li></ul><ul><li>5. Widely open ductus arteriosus </li></ul>
    23. 23. Three Shunts of Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Ductus Venosus (Ligamentum venosum) </li></ul><ul><li>- Oxygenated blood from placenta - fetal UV - IVC – RA - by passes liver </li></ul><ul><li>Foramen Ovale </li></ul><ul><li>- From RA to LA – by passes the RV,Pulmonary trunk - no blood to lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Ductus Arteriosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by passing lungs </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Umbilical Vessels: </li></ul><ul><li>-2 Umbilical Arteries ( Medial Umbilical Ligaments) =deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Umbilical Vein ( Ligamentum teres )= Oxygenated blood to fetus from placenta </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Fetal Circulation <ul><ul><li>Placenta - umbilical vein - ductus venosus –IVC – RA- foramen ovale –LA –LV – Aorta – systemic circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RA – RV – pulmonary trunk - ductus arteriosus – aortic arch - enter the systemic circulation, by passing the pulmonary circulation </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Fetal circulation before birth <ul><li>Note :oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated blood in </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>IVC </li></ul><ul><li>rt. Atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Atrium </li></ul><ul><li>entrance of the ductus arteriosus into the descending aorta </li></ul>
    27. 27. After Birth <ul><li>Lungs expands with air and pulmonary vascular resistance falls. Pulmonary blood flow increases </li></ul><ul><li>The foramen ovale and ductus venosus close during the first day of life </li></ul><ul><li>The ductus arteriosus close during the first 24 – 72 hours of life </li></ul>
    28. 28. Thank you Download more documents and slide shows on The Medical Post [ www.themedicalpost.net ]