First a review…. Bernini’s examples of the Baroque.
► “I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the irons point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying.” Chapter XXIX; Part 17, Teresas Autobiography
THINKING QUESTION….► Around time do you think the three sculptures were created. Provide a brief rationale.
OFREVOLUTIONS: FROMNEOCLASSICAL TO ROMANTIC
NEOCLASSICAL► From the mid 18th to the early 19th century► harkened back to the grandeur of ancient Greece and Rome (hence “neo” “classical”), many Greek and Roman references► was a reaction to the overly emotional and ornate Baroque► was restrained, rational, sometimes rigid and severe► As reason guided the philosophes’ minds, so too should reason guide artist’s hand► Major artists: Jacques David & Jean August Ingres► Coincided with the French and American revolutions
ROMANTICISM Was a general reaction to the Enlightenment emphasis on reason Rationalist quest to understand human nature lost sight of what really makes us human… Emotion and individuality. Romantics emphasized the importance of intuition, imagination, feeling and emotions Allowed for greater emotion and expression on the canvas
Often fanciful, sentimental, unreal, imaginative. Often associated with dreams, folklore, heroics of bygone days. Classical : mechanical :: Romantic: organic Romantics questioned the “progress” promised by society guided by reason. Napoleonic Wars? Napoleonic dictatorship? Materialism? Exploitation?
The Enlightenment’s Impacton Romanticism Romanticism can be traced back to Rousseau’s idea that European’s needed to get “back to nature” (i.e. noble savage) In its purity, could mean a retreat to wild places… example: British landscape artists such as Constable and Turner reacted to/against industrialism’s impact, especially on nature
We can see Immanuel Kant as a romantic Critique of Pure Reason (1781) & Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Mind is not tabula rasa; human beings possess an innate sense of moral duty: categorical imperative
Romanticism Glorified the individual Individuals portrayed as heroes in art Mimicked the intellectual trend of J.G. Fichte (1762-1814) Believed the world is as it is because strong willed individuals imposed their wills on the world The emotion of Romanticism is strongly related to Nationalism and Liberalism
Romantic Landscapes Romantic British landscape artists such as Turner and Constable Reflected new attitudes toward nature Rousseau’s idyllic image of natural world contrasted to the corrupt and artificial contemporary materialist society God’s creative spirit could be seen in nature New emphasis on the emotive effects of landscapes, calming, tranquil or dramatic and frightening THE SUBLIME
Romanticism and religion Romantics saw religion as basic to human nature; faith as a means to knowledge Many urged a revival of Christianity based on the inner emotions of humankind as the foundations
The Romantics looked back… Appreciated the Middle Ages, a time before... the overemphasis on reason, where religion was still appreciated… the materialism of the Renaissance… the social ills associated with industrialization… … this was reflected in the architecture Neo Gothic
CologneCathedralConstruction began in1248 and wascompleted in 1880
A photo of the unfinishedcathedral in 1856
NapoleonCrossingthe Alps,1801byJacques-LouisDavid, Oil on canvas, 102" x 87" (260x 221 cm), Chateau de
WandererAbove theSea of Fog Caspar DavidFriedrich, 1818
Solitary TreeCaspar David Friedrich, 1822
Abbey in the OaksCaspar David Friedrich , 1809
Nightmare (The Incubus) Henry Fuseli, 1781
Massacre at Chios EugeneDelacroix, 1824
Compareand contrastVermeer’sAstronomerto… (1668)
Man and woman contemplating the MoonCaspar David Friedrich, 1830
Compare and contrast the paintings. Account for the differences. Man and woman contemplating the Moon , Caspar David Friedrich, 1834Astronomer, JohannesVermeer, 1668
Raft of the MedusaTheodore Gericault, 1819
The Bard John Martin, 1817On a rock, whose haughty browFrowns oer cold Conwaysfoaming flood,Robed in the sable garb of woeWith haggard eyes the Poetstood;Loose his beard and hoary hairStreamed like a meteor to thetroubled air.He curses the departing armies:“Ruin seize thee, ruthless King!Confusion on thy banners wait!”~ Excerpt from a popular poem by Thomas Gray (1755),telling of the conquest of Wales by English King Edward III inthe 13th century
Death of Marat• Death of Marat by Jacques by Jacques- David Louis David
Explain the ways in which the Romanticism of this painting is consistent with that of Wordsworth’s poetryand Chateaubriand’s description of a Gothic Cathedral.
THE BIRTH OF REALISM IN ART• Began during the 1830 and 1848 revolutions in France and reached its peak during the Second French Empire (1852-1870)• Generally, realists shifted away from idealism of the romantics to a more realistic rendering of nature, social relationships, and the world at large• Realist artists became disillusioned by the “polished artists” who studied at the Art Academies, especially in France
The Barbizon School in France• a group of French, realist landscape artists who rejected the Academic tradition, abandoning theory in an attempt to achieve a truer representation of life in the countryside• Considered to have sown the seeds of Modernism with their individualism, and were the forerunners of the Impressionists, who took a similar philosophical approach to their art• For the artists such as Theodore Rousseau, nature became a place of nostalgia and refuge from the social and political troubles of 1840 and 1848 as well as the refusal from the Salons• Considered a “link” between the Romantics and Realists
Theodore RousseauEdge Of The Forest, Near The Gorges DApremontOil On Canvas: (31.67 x 39.58 in)Signed and dated at lower right: 1866 / TH. Rousseau
REALISTS EMPHASIZED THE ORDINARY• The subjects of paintings were drawn directly from observable life, no longer allegorical and/or mythological• “Democratization of art”• In the wake of the 1848 Revolutions and the release of the Communist Manifesto, realism reflected a new attitude of social disillusionment• Workers, the poor, and the homeless were chosen not only as protest, but also to document contemporary life
• Realists carried on some aspects of Romanticism such as…• reverence for natural beauty and attention to the individual, but…• Realists did not transform these things into picturesque, sublime works…• instead they appreciated these things for their imperfect, unfinished, ordinary, sometimes ugly, ordinariness. (i.e. Millet, Corbet, Daumier)• Often times people were offended by this “vulgar” art.
Shepherdess with Her Flock, Jean-Francois Millet, 1864, Musee dOrsay, Paris, Oil oncanvas, 32 x 39 3/4 in. (81 x 101 cm)
A Wagon of the Third Class. Honore Daumier. c. 1862-64. Oil on canvas. Museum of FineArts, Ottawa, Canada.
A Burial at Ornans, Gustave Courbet. 1849-50 Oil on canvas Musée dOrsay, Paris.
The Gleaners, Jean Francois Millet, 1857
The Gross ClinicEakins, Thomas1875Oil on canvas96 x 78 in.Jefferson Medical College ofThomas Jefferson University,Philadelphia
The Legislative Belly. Perspective View of the Ministers Seats of 1834. Honore Daumier.
Olympia, Edouard Manet, 1863, Oil on canvas, 51 3/8 x 74 3/4 in. (130.5 x 190 cm),Musee dOrsay, Paris
The Realists gave rise to the artistic rebellion of the Impressionists• Progressive minded realists, like Manet, were not allowed to show their works at the official Salon of the Academy• 1863, Napoleon III called for an alternative show for the public to decide for themselves…• Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused)