Implications of Learning Principles in the design of Learning Multimedia
Why learn about Learning principles Instruction is the application of learning principles. Effective educational materials delivers effective instruction. Multimedia should be used to design effective educational materials.
Behavioral Psychology Principles Correct responses must be followed up with immediate feedback or reinforcement.Stimuli can be positive or negative. When a stimuli reinforce behavior: provide positive feedback. The learner has learned something when you can observe his behavior Immediate feedback can be given in the form of sounds, animation, color and audio. There should be a score element and an evaluation element
Behavioral Psychology Principles (cont’d) The learning process in behaviorism is linear. The sensory perception in learning is very important
After an exercise, the exercise can be checked.
The sound, animation and color in a program is very important and have to do with the sensory perception of the learner.
Cognitive Psychology Principles Dual Coding theory : learning is enhanced when complementary information codes are received simultaneously Active Learning (people learn by doing) The use of different and interactive multimedia (video, sound, animation... etc.) enhances dual coding.
Multimedia has the capacity to require learner’s action.
Action should go beyond human-computer interactions.
Cognitive Psychology Principles (cont’d) Mental models: representation in memory to understand complex skills and phenomena Transfer of Learning (applying and using knowledge in real world) Provide conceptual models: computer diagrams, animations, video presentations… etc. = Using simulations and case-based scenarios is essential in multimedia design to insure transfer.
Constructivist Psychology Principles Discovery learning: let learner explore, experiment, research, ask questions and seek answers. Situated learning and anchored instruction: learning occurs in a context, and learning environment should be embedded in a context similar to real world. Adding resources is very essential to multimedia design. Example: web quests Properly design the learning environment to present context of learning
Constructivist Psychology Principles (cont’d) Reflecting the complexity of the world: better educational environments should be designed with information, problems, and multiple solution approaches. Cooperative and collaborative learning: knowledge is constructed by interaction with others. More multisensory, motivation and metacognition. Design multimedia programs with information, problems, and multiple solution approaches. Multimedia program should use collaborative tools and technology