Implications of Learning Principles in the design of Learning Multimedia<br />
Why learn about Learning principles<br />Instruction is the application of learning principles.<br />Effective educational materials delivers effective instruction.<br />Multimedia should be used to design effective educational materials. <br />
Behavioral Psychology Principles<br />Correct responses must be followed up with immediate feedback or reinforcement.Stimuli can be positive or negative.<br />When a stimuli reinforce behavior: provide positive feedback.<br />The learner has learned something when you can observe his behavior<br />Immediate feedback can be given in the form of sounds, animation, color and audio.<br />There should be a score element and an evaluation element<br />
Behavioral Psychology Principles (cont’d)<br />The learning process in behaviorism is linear.<br />The sensory perception in learning is very important<br /><ul><li>The purpose of the software is stated clearly.
After an exercise, the exercise can be checked. </li></ul>The sound, animation and color in a program is very important and have to do with the sensory perception of the learner.<br />
Cognitive Psychology Principles<br />Dual Coding theory : learning is enhanced when complementary information codes are received simultaneously<br />Active Learning (people learn by doing)<br />The use of different and interactive multimedia (video, sound, animation... etc.) enhances dual coding.<br /><ul><li>Multimedia has the capacity to require learner’s action.
Action should go beyond human-computer interactions.</li></li></ul><li>Cognitive Psychology Principles (cont’d)<br />Mental models: representation in memory to understand complex skills and phenomena<br />Transfer of Learning (applying and using knowledge in real world)<br />Provide conceptual models: computer diagrams, animations, video presentations… etc. = <br />Using simulations and case-based scenarios is essential in multimedia design to insure transfer.<br />
Constructivist Psychology Principles<br />Discovery learning: let learner explore, experiment, research, ask questions and seek answers.<br />Situated learning and anchored instruction: learning occurs in a context, and learning environment should be embedded in a context similar to real world. <br />Adding resources is very essential to multimedia design. Example: web quests<br />Properly design the learning environment to present context of learning<br />
Constructivist Psychology Principles (cont’d)<br />Reflecting the complexity of the world: better educational environments should be designed with information, problems, and multiple solution approaches.<br />Cooperative and collaborative learning: knowledge is constructed by interaction with others. More multisensory, motivation and metacognition. <br />Design multimedia programs with information, problems, and multiple solution approaches.<br />Multimedia program should use collaborative tools and technology<br />