Introduction to the Endangered Species Act


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The Endangered Species Act of 1973 allowed the listing and protection of threatened and endangered species in the United States.

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Introduction to the Endangered Species Act

  1. 1. Endangered Species Act of 1973 Mark Ostendorf
  2. 2. History <ul><li>Interaction between people and nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife exploitation—Hunting and Trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture—Removing and disturbing vital habitat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community growth—Infringing upon habitat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Native species—Habitat disruption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kudzu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zebra Mussel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of human interaction with the environment? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Extinction <ul><li>The eradication of species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passenger Pigeon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Near-Extinction of Prominent or Charismatic Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Bison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bald Eagle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North American Wolf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whooping Crane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological Imbalance </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Environmental Movement <ul><li>Early Contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Muir, Gifford Pinchot, Henry David Thoreau, Aldo Leopold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silent Spring —Rachel Carson (1962) </li></ul><ul><li>The Population Bomb —Paul Ehrlich (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to Growth —Club of Rome (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1970’s, the public had become increasingly aware of its affect on the environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relevant Previous Legislation <ul><li>National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Water Act of 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air Act of 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Bald Eagle Act of 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Endangered Species Act of 1973 <ul><li>The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection and Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An updatable list of “Endangered” and “Threatened” species was created. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Endangered vs. Threatened <ul><li>“ Endangered” means a species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Threatened” means a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Endangered Species Act of 1973 <ul><li>Federal agencies, in consultation with the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and/or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service, must ensure that their actions are not likely to jeopardize listed species or their habitats </li></ul>
  9. 9. Endangered Species Act of 1973 <ul><li>The FWS of the Department of the Interior maintains the worldwide list of endangered and threatened organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Species include birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can petition FWS to include a new species on this list. </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ Taking” Listed Animals <ul><li>The ESA makes it unlawful for a person to “take” a listed animal without a permit. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as “to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. International Species Protection <ul><li>The ESA also implements U.S. participation in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>175-nation agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to prevent species from becoming endangered or extinct due to international trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export/Import by permit only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A species may require a permit under the ESA, CITES, or both . </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The End
  13. 13. References <ul><li>EPA. Summary of the Endangered Species Act: 16 U.S.C. §1531 et seq. (1973). </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. ESA Basics: More Than 30 Years of Conserving Endangered Species. </li></ul><ul><li>Bald Eagle. Don Pfizer </li></ul><ul><li>Bison Out on the Range. Ryan Hagerty </li></ul>