General Characteristics• Study of classic works from Ancient Greece and Imperial Rome.• Use of profane topics.• Human beings are God’s best creation.• There were a lot of studies about nature.• Study of human anatomy.• Artists started to gain prestige.• Patronage is promoted because of the spreading of the idea of prosperity, so nobility in the Renaissance era will sponsor artists in order to go down in history. One of the most important families will be the Medicis in Florence.
Quattrocento’s architecture•Architects wanted to controlspace with simple elements.•Space gets rationalizated andorganised.•Typical elements of Greek andRoman art were used: columns,front doorways, semicirculararchs, cornices and domes.•The first grand work ofRenaissance style was the Domeof Florence’s cathedral, by FilippoBrunelleschi.•Besides churches andcathedrals, the “palazzi” (fornobility and bourgeoisie) werethe most important buildings.
Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti is a vast mainly Renaissance palace in Florence, Italy. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the GrandDuchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions. The architect’s name is unknown.
Quattrocento’s sculpture•Sculptors worried about human representation in an ideal and well-proportioned way. Classicalmodels and nudes were brought back.•They used marble, which is very difficult to sculpt, demostrating that they had quite a bit of skillwith that material.•They introduce the main characters of the Renaissance. Donatello will be the forerunner of this style, because he worked with elegance and harmony, so he will give a lot of vitality to his works. Verrochio, Leonardo’s teacher, will work with emotions. We’ll understand by comparing these sculptures of the same David.
Quattrocento’s sculpture•Another well-known artist of this period is Lorenzo Ghiberti, who worked withbronze and used reliefs in his porchs. His most famous work will be the Gates ofParadise, Baptistery, Florence.
Quattrocento’s paintings•The most innovative thing will bethe use of perspective and thestudy of lights.•Artists will be obsessed by theillustration of depth in a flatsurface.•Naturalistic representations oflandscapes will be fundamental.•Regarding portraits, artists will tryto despict a wide range ofemotions.•These works will touch religiousand mythological themes.•Patrons will be often despicted inthose works of art.•Masaccio, Piero della Francesca orSandro Boticelli were some ofthose painters. Masacio: La Trinidad
Quattrocento’s paintings Piero della Francesca: The Brera Madonna. This work represents a sacra conversazione, with the Virgin enthroned and the sleeping Child in the middle, surrounded by a host of angels and saints. On the right low corner, kneeling and wearing his armor, the patron of arts and condottiero duke Federico da Montefeltro. It’s a geometric composition, based in a triangle and a sphere, with pale colours and a cold light.
Quattrocento’s paintings Sandro Boticelli: Primavera or Allegory of Spring. The painting, depicting a group of mythological figures in a garden, is allegorical for the lush growth of Spring.
Cinquecento’s architecture•The main example of thisarchitecture is Saint Peter’sBasilica in Vatican City. Bramante,Raphael Sanzio, Michelangelo,Bellini and Maderno all take partin this work.•Cinquecento’s architecture wasmore dramatic thanQuattrocento’s.•This kind of architecture usedclassical models from AncientGreece and Imperial Rome.•High Renaissance architectureexactly followed classical canonsof proportion, and observed thebasic equality of form andfunction.
Cinquecento’s Architecture: St Peter’s dome Saint Peters Basilica has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world. Saint Peters is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic sites.
Cinquecento’s architecture: St Peter’s domeFlorence’s cathedral. Brunelleschi (1417 – 1420) Dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo (XVI century)
Cinquecento’s architecture: PalladioVilla La Rotonda is a Renaissance villa just outside Vicenza, northern Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio.
Cinquecento’s Moses sculpture•The most importantsculptor of this period willbe MichelangelloBuonarroti.•He didn’t seek neitherbalance nor harmony, hewill try to find a dramaticexpression, which will beknown as terribilità.•While he develops his arts,his sculptures will get morelively and dramatic,showing us the tension andthe strength of thecharacters. Moses (done forJulius II tomb) and Davidare good examples of this. David
Cinquecento’s sculpture: Michelangelo •The Pietà (1498–1499) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo, housed in St. Peters Basilica in Vatican City. It is the first of a number of works of the same theme by the artist: the rest of the sculptures are “The Deposition” ( “The Florentine pietà”) and “The Rondadinni pietà”. All of them are done in marble.
Cinquecento’s sculpture: Cellini Benvenutto Cellini was a great sculptor of that time, but he was eclipsed by Michelangelo. His main pieces were the Perseus and the Cellini Salt Cellar, a present to Francis I, king of France.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Leonardo da Vinci•Leonardo da Vinci was a great mind of the Renaissance era, being the archetypicalRenaissance man: he was interested in sciences, arts, and all sorts of knowledge.•He had great skills painting, and his obsessions were lights, perspective and atmosphere.•The Last Supper, a fresco painting made in Milan, achieves a balanced, harmoniouscomposition.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Leonardo da Vinci•He improves artistic representation with techniques like the sfumato, which reflects the fog thatsurrounds bodies in the horizon.•Among the qualities that make Leonardos work unique are the innovative techniques that he usedin laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Raphael Sanzio•He is considered the top of Renaissance painting because the mastered thetechnique.•He makes splendid, psychological portraits.•His compositions were elegant and harmonious.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Michelangelo•His most important piece of art is the Sistine Chapel Ceiling.•As a student Michelangelo studied and drew from the works of the two most renownedFlorentine fresco painters of the early Renaissance, Giotto and Masaccio.•For him, the body is simply the manifestation of the soul, or of a state of mind and character.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Venetians •In the 15th century Venetian painting developed through influences from the Paduan School and Antonello daMessina, who introduced the oil painting technique of Early Netherlandish painting. It is typified by a warm colour scale and a picturesque use of colour. Among the leading early masters were Giorgione and Titian, then Tintoretto and Veronese. Giorgione: The Tempest. Veronese: Venus and Adonis.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Venetians Tintoretto: The Last SupperTintoretto was a Venetian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. Tintorettos Last Supper incorporates an imbalanced composition and visual complexity.
Cinquecento’s paintings: Venetians Titian: Danae Tiziano Vecelli was an Italian painter, the most important member of the16th-century Venetian school. Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars“,Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters.