Philippine Society under Spain<br />Part 2<br />
Tobacco Monopoly<br />tobacco production was completely controlled by the government<br />brought considerable profits to ...
Royal Company of the Phils.<br /> established in 1785 <br />promoted direct trade between Spain and the Philippines <br />...
Economic Stagnation<br /> according to the Spaniards was due to:<br /> the indolence of the Filipinos<br />Filipinos’ inca...
Economic Stagnation<br /> the real  reasons:<br /> failure of the Spaniards to provide a substitute market for Philippine ...
Religious Influences<br /> widespread of Christianity<br />religious orders:<br />Augustinians (1575)<br /> Saint Augustin...
Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Franciscans (1578)<br /> St. Francis of Assisi  <br /> Our Lady of the An...
Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Jesuits (1581)<br /> San Ignacio de Loyola<br />Ateneo de Manila Universi...
Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Dominicans – Order of Preachers (1587)<br />  St. Dominic<br />Collegio d...
Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Augustinian Recollects (1606)<br /> St. Augustine<br />Collegio de San Ju...
Religious Influences<br />For additional notes, please go to: <br />http://www.slideshare.net/tzeriapol/religious-results-...
Social & Cultural Influences<br />the natives refused to cast off their indigenous cultural heritage and accommodated Euro...
Social & Cultural Influences<br /> use of Gregorian calendar<br /> alphabet<br /> dressing<br /> burial practices<br />wed...
Social & Cultural Influences<br /> western architecture<br />cottas or fortresses<br />churches – modified Romanesque styl...
Social & Cultural Influences<br /> painting<br />Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo<br />sculpture<br />retablos<br ...
Influences on Education<br /> religious oriented and controlled by the friars<br /> subject to physical and mental torture...
Influences on Education<br />Dominicans <br />1611 – University of Sto. Tomas <br />1630 – College of San Juan de Letran<b...
Influences on Education<br /> Jesuits<br /> 1589 – Collegio de Sta. Potenciana<br />1632 – Collegio de Sta. Isabel<br />18...
Partial Hispanization<br /> due to the deliberate refusal of the Spaniards to teach the Spanish language.<br />Philippine ...
References<br /> http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Tobacco_Monopoly<br /> http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?...
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  • Tobacco MonopolyThe Tobacco Monopoly refers to the 1782 economic program of Spanish Governor General Jose V. Basco, in which tobacco production in the Philippines was under total control of the government. Some pueblos were designated as tobacco districts, like Ilocos and Cagayan, and tobacco planting became compulsory to the point that some crops were abandoned. Brought in the country from Mexico, this became the Philippines&apos; (under Spanish colonial rule) most important industry in the 18th century. It took effect through a royal decree signed by King Carlos III of Spain. Contents[hide]1 History2 Forced production3 Fruits of forced production4 External Link5 Reference6 Citation[edit] HistoryTobacco as smoke and snuff became very popular to the Spaniards, other foreigners in the Philippines and Filipinos alike but the colonial government learned to exploit its popularity only in the latter part of the 18th century. The actual establishment of the Tobacco Monopoly in 1782 came only after considerable prodding from the metropolitan government. Maintaining the Philippines as a colony was a serious drain on the coffers of the Spanish Empire. Expenses incurred in running the colony were usually paid for by a yearly subsidy (called real situado) sent from the Philippines&apos; sister colony, Mexico. This financial support from the Spanish royal court was often insufficient, especially with expenditures in the Philippine colony growing each year. This prompted the royal fiscal assigned in Manila to devise a plan allowing the Philippines to raise revenues on its own and thus be able to supplement the Spanish subsidy. This royal fiscal was Francisco Leandro de Vianna, who first proposed creating a tobacco monopoly. De Vianna reasoned that tobacco was a product widely consumed throughout the islands, with a market of roughly one million. He projected earnings of as much as P400,000 from the venture. The first time the proposal was made, however, both King Carlos III of Spain and the colonial officials did not prioritize it. All of that would change during the term of Governor-General Basco. Basco had plans to develop and promote Philippine agriculture and de Vianna&apos;s proposal seemed attractive to him. After studying the proposal, Basco sent his plan to establish large-scale tobacco production in the colony under complete ownership and management by the colonial government of Spain. What probably perked up the ears of the Spanish king about Basco&apos;s plan was its &quot;selling point&quot; to make the Philippine colony financially self-sufficient, thus removing a huge financial burden from the Spanish crown. The King of Spain issued a royal decree on 9 February 1780 setting in motion Basco&apos;s plan. By this decree a monopoly was created which remained in operation for a hundred years. This monopoly strictly supervised the growing and grading of the leaf and had factories in Manila for the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes and smoking tobacco . In the field the chief appraiser residing at the provincial capital had a force of subordinates known as &quot;alumnosaforadores&quot;. These were in charge of districts composed of municipalities and in each municipality there was a &quot;caudilo&quot; (headman) who was also the “gobernadorcillo” (little governor) who by the aid of his &quot; tenientes &quot; (lieutenants or overseers), supervised the growing of tobacco being remunerated for this service by a percentage of the crop produced. The chief appraiser set the date when the first seed beds were to be sown and also determined the date of planting and number of subsequent seed beds. The program laid out by the chief appraiser went into considerable detail, even designating the number of and when they should be done, as well as the number of plants to be set out in a unit of land. [edit] Forced productionAlmost two years after the royal decree was issued, Basco ordered local officials and military commanders to prevent unnecessary losses of tobacco revenues. By 2 March 1782 tobacco production was established in Luzon, with La Union, Ilocos, Abra, Cagayan Valley and Nueva Ecija (still part of Pampanga at the time) as the centers for planting, growing, harvesting and processing tobacco. The Filipinos, especially those in the Ilocos Region and in Cagayan Valley, were forced to plant tobacco. Each farmer had a quota to produce. Tobacco was grown on small plots by individual farmers instead of on a plantation wherein the government would have complete control of the operations. The government, therefore, had to negotiate with individual farmers, thus, involving hundreds of separate contracts and the need for more people to implement the activity. At the start, the farmers were treated fairly and got the right price for their produce. But in the end, the Filipinos abhorred tobacco not because of the difficulty in growing it but due to the abuses committed by the Spaniards as they forced the Filipinos to grow this crop. A collector was contracted to collect the leaves from all the tobacco areas. In effect, these collectors served as middlemen between the government and the farmers, so the difference between what the government gave them to pay the farmers and what they actually paid the farmers was theirs. The collection of leaves was placed under direct government administration after many complaints. This gave the farmers better terms like fair treatment and the correct prices. To soften the impact of the monopoly as a radical and burdensome measure, tobacco production was linked to the program on economic development of the country. Those who were permitted to raise tobacco were promised prompt and adequate payment for their produce. [edit] Fruits of forced productionBy 1850 the tobacco monopoly was producing immense financial gain for the colonial government. Some reports at the time pegged the earnings by as much as USD500,000 (P21.275 million). One account in 1866 reported a much higher amount, as earnings rose to USD38,418,939 (P163.4 million) that year. Behind the great financial success of the tobacco monopoly however, was the anger of Filipinos who were exploited by the monopoly. The injustices suffered by Filipinos in the tobacco growing areas were many. They were fined heavily if they failed to meet the quota. They were not allowed to smoke their own product. The prices were dictated by the government under unfair terms. To make matters worse, government agents often cheated the tobacco growers. The monopoly heightened the exploitation of the Filipinos under the pretext of religion and obedience to the Spanish crown as it also aroused hostility among the people. Since the monopoly created many problems among the Spanish officials and the people, there were proposals to abolish it and let the Filipinos pay double tribute. There could be alternative crops to grow and the hatred towards the Spaniards could be lessened. Novo Ecijanos suffered a lot from the system. Nueva Ecija was more often able to meet production quotas compared to the other districts. Despite this, tobacco policy imposed a lower price on tobacco from areas closer to Manila. That meant that first-class tobacco leaf grown and harvested from Nueva Ecija was priced lower by one dollar, compared to those from Ilocos, La Union and Cagayan Valley. Despite the diligence, cooperation and huge earnings given by Novo Ecijanos to the Spanish government, they were deprived of the fruits of their labor. Remarkably, this abuse in the hands of the tobacco monopoly did not spur Novo Ecijanos to revolt, unlike the Ilocanos who staged an uprising over the injustices in the system. Some tobacco growers in Nueva Ecija resorted to smuggling their own harvests in order to get some profit. But getting caught entailed harsher fines and penalties. Even sympathetic local officials had no choice but to enforce the unjust policies under pain of arrest and hard labor, once laxity on their part resulted in low production. The flourishing tobacco industry coupled with the rich agricultural lands in central and northeastern Nueva Ecija also attracted migrants from neighboring Pampanga, Ilocos and Tagalog areas. This made Nueva Ecija a melting pot of cultures and influences, the results of which are still evident in present-day Novo Ecijano culture. As the tobacco monopoly fueled further unrest, Spain finally abolished the monopoly on December 3, 1882. It was only then that they could all once again grow rice for food. In the end, the monopoly did not only force the people, especially those from the north and Cagayan to grow tobacco, but compelled them to produce more than what their piece of land could yield. The collection of the produce alone was burdensome for the Filipinos, who suddered under the pain of 25 blows if they did not comply to transport the produce on their back. A century of hardship and social injustice brought about by the tobacco monopoly spurred Filipinos in general and Novo Ecijanos in particular, to aspire for freedom from colonial bondage. http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Tobacco_Monopoly
  • established in 1785 promoted direct trade between Spain and the Philippines exempted Philippine goods from tariff and encouraged the growth of cash crop economy since early profits of the company was invested in the cultivation of sugar, indigo, peppers, silk, and textile factories. http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Royal_Company_of_the_Philippines
  • Augustinian valuessLove and the Order of Love.Interiority.Humility.Devotion to Study and the Pursuit of Wisdom.Freedom.Community.Common Good.Humble and Generous Service.Friendship.Prayer.
  • VocabulariodelaLenguaTagala byFr Pedro de Saan Buenaventura Bad image as shown in Noli and FiliThe second group of friars to arrive in the Philippines was the Franciscans  or Order of Friar Minor (June 24, 1578). This religious order established their mother church inside Intramuros in honor of Nuestra Senora de los Angeles (Our Lady of Angels). Today, the Mapua Institute stands on the site of the old Franciscan church. The mother church of the Franciscans is currently located at the Santuario de San Pedro Baustistain Quezon City.  Fray Juan Clemente OFM was a famous Franciscan lay brother who established the Hospital de San Juan de Dios in Intramuros near the Parian. San Juan de Dios stood in Intramuros for over 300 years until it was destroyed by the last world war. Today, the Lyceum occupies the site. The Franciscans are also known to have established the leprosarium Hospital de San Lazaro. San Lazaro Hospital is located in Sta. Cruz Manila and it is known as quarantine for deadly diseases and rabies vaccine. 
  • The Jesuits or the Society of Jesus arrived in Manila on September 17, 1581. The Jesuits are known as educators who founded the school Colegio de Manila or ColegioMaximo de San Ignacio in Intramuros in 1590. They also built their first school and mother church and convent where the PamantasanngLungsodngMaynila presently stands.  The Jesuits surrendered all their properties to the civil government when they were expelled from all Spanish territories in mid-18 century. Upon their return in 1859, the Jesuit began to take over theEscuela Municipal de Manila, which currently known as the Ateneo de Manila University. The mother church was built right next to the school and was named in honor of the founder of the Jesuit order, San Ignacio de Loyola. The Jesuits also establish the Manila Observatory in Padre Faura St. Ermita. Robinson’s Place Manila now occupies the former Jesuit Observatory. Jesuits in the PhilippinesFrom Mission to Province (1581-1768)In 1581 the first Jesuits from the Province of Mexico arrived in the Philippines. The mission was headed by Fr. Antonio Sedeño, the Superior. His companions were Fr. Alonso Sanchez and Brother Nicolas Gallardo. A fourth member, Scholastic Gaspar Suarez de Toledo, had died during the voyage from Acapulco. In 1585, the first novice was accepted, Juan Garcia Pacheco, a Spaniard. In 1591 Mission stations were established at Balayan, Batangas, at Taytay and Antipolo, Rizal. In 1593 the first Jesuit mission stations were established in the Visayas at Tibauan, Panay. Here Fr. Pedro Chirino opened the first school of the Society in the Philippines. It was a catechetical school for natives. Later the school was expanded by an elementary school both for Spanish and Filipino boys. The first Filipino, a certain Martin Sancho or Sanchez, was received into the Society in Rome. In 1601 he returned to the Philippines but died shortly thereafter of tuberculosis.In June of 1595 Fr. General Claudio Acquaviva erected the Philippine Mission into a Vice Province dependent on the Province of Mexico with Fr. Sedeño as its first Vice-Provincial. In September of the same year the College of Manila was opened in the Jesuit compound in Intramuros on Calle Real (later Calle General Luna). The College offered courses in grammar, philosophy, theology and canon law. In the same year residences of Jesuits were established in Cebu City and on the Island of Leyte and Samar and sometime later also in Bohol and in Mindanao. In 1601 the residential College of San Jose, attached to the College of Manila opened on August 25. In 1605, just 24 years after the arrival of the first Jesuits, Fr. General Acquaviva erected the Philippine Vice Province into an independent Province. By that time the Province had 67 members who labored in one college of higher studies (the College of Manila), one residential college or seminary (San Jose), seven mission residences and two mission stations.In the same year or in 1606 a Novitiate was opened in Antipolo, but later the novices were transferred to the College of Manila. From 1622-1630 the Novitiate was located in San Pedro Makati, but in 1630 it again returned to the College of Manila. The Novitiate building in Makati became a house of Retreats and a Villa House. In 1656 fifty years after the erection of the Province and 75 years after the founding of the Mission, the membership of the Province had risen to 108 (74 priests, 11 scholastics, 23 coadjutor Brothers). There were five colleges, one Novitiate, one Seminary-College, 9 Mission Residences, and the spiritual administration of 73 towns. In these 75 years 372 Jesuits had come to the Philippines from Europe and New Spain. 143 Jesuits had been admitted to and had persevered in the Society in the Philippines. Three had been received as priests, 23 as scholastics, and 117 as coadjutor brothers.In 1668 the Philippine Province established a mission in the Marianas Islands. This mission later became a Vice Province dependent on the Philippine Province. By 1755 the Philippine Province had the spiritual administration of 80 parishes and missions in the Philippines and the Marianas, caring for a total population of 212,153 persons.In 1768 the Jesuits were banished from the Philippines. On February 27, 1767 King Charles III of Spain had issued a decree banishing the Society of Jesus from Spain and the Spanish dominions. This decree reached Manila on May 17, 1768. Between 1769 and 1771 the Jesuits in the Philippines were transported to Spain and from there deported to Italy. The possessions of the Province were declared forfeit to the crown except the obraspias, which were maintained as ecclesiastical property. Among these was the College of San Jose, which continued to exist, first under the administration of the secular clergy and later under that of the Dominicans. The Jesuit parishes and Missions were transferred to other religious orders.From Mission to Province (1859-the Present)Ninety years would pass before the first Jesuit mission of the restored Society would return to the Philippines.  On June 14, 1859, a Tuesday morning, ten Jesuits of the Aragon Province, six priests and four coadjutor brothers, disembarked from the frigate Luisita. They were led by their Superior, Father José Fernández Cuevas. They entered Intramuros where they were warmly welcomed by the Augustinian Friars, who took them to their Villa House. There the Jesuits stayed for some time while their own residence was being built. On the day of arrival they presented themselves to the authorities and informed them of the special purpose of their coming, namely “for the missions of Mindanao and Jolό.Soon after their arrival the Jesuits began the exploration of their new mission territory. They set up missions, built parishes, opened mission schools, administered the sacraments, and taught children their catechism. They wrote the first grammars and compiled the first dictionaries in Maguindanao, Tururay, and Bagobo. By the end of the 19th century, the Society of Jesus had taken over all the mission posts of Mindanao and Sulu.Manila residents were unwilling, however, to let all the Jesuits travel to far off Mindanao. On August 5, 1859, less than a month after their arrival, a group petitioned the Spanish Governor-General for the Jesuits to begin a school. The Superior, Father Cuevas refused, because the mission of the Jesuits was to be in Mindanao. The people insisted and after discussing it with his men, Father Cuevas decided to refuse unless the Governor would issue a written order. This was done on October 1 of the same year transferring the direction of the EscuelaPia to the Jesuits. The school was renamed Escuela Municipal and classes began under the Jesuits on December 10, 1859 with just 23 boys. Three months later the school had increased to 170 students.By 1909 the school was formally renamed the Ateneo de Manila. It had primary, secondary and tertiary levels well established. Since that time other Ateneos were founded in Zamboanga, Cagayan de Oro, Naga, Davao along with other schools from the former Chinese delegation and likewise in many small parishes in Mindanao and Culion. The same ideals of excellence, of seeking to do more for love of God and neighbor and country imbued them all. In 1919 the College of San Jose was restored to the Society as a Seminary for the education of Filipino secular priests. By 1920 the Philippine Jesuit Mission had 157 members: 78 priests, 17 scholastics, 62 coadjutor brothers. There were mission residences with 20 additional stations at Butuan, Cagayan, Caraga, Cotabato, Culion, Dapitan, Davao, and Zamboanga. In Manila the Mission ministered at the Ateneo de Manila, San Ignacio Church, the House of Probation and the College of San Jose, and the Observatory. In Vigan Jesuits ran a seminary and college.1921 saw the arrival in Manila of 22 Jesuits (12 priests and 10 scholastics) from the combined Provinces of Maryland, New York, and New England, USA. In 1927 the Philippine Mission was transferred to the Province of Maryland-New York from the Province of Aragon by Fr. General WlodimirLedochowski. The first American Superior appointed on April of 1927 was Fr. James J. Carlin, S.J. At that time the Mission had the following membership: 76 Americans, 68 Spaniards, 42 Filipinos. The Mission maintained residences in Butuan, Cagayan, Caraga, Cotabato, Culion, Dapitan, Davao, Zamboanga and Manila. In Manila the Society had the Ateneo, San Ignacio Church, the Observatory, a House of Probation, and the College of San Jose.On February 2, 1952 the Philippine Mission became the Philippine Vice-Province, with Fr. Leo A. Cullum, S.J. as first Vice Provincial. Another milestone was reached, when on February 3, 1958 the Philippine Vice-Province was erected as an independent Province. Fr. Francis X. Clark, S.J. who had served as Vice Provincial became the first Provincial. By this time the Province had 442 members: 239 (54%) Filipinos and 197 (45%) Americans. The Province maintained residences in Cagayan and Zamboanga There were seven Ateneos: Cagayan, Davao, Manila, Naga, San Pablo, Tuguegarao, and Zamboanga. The Province maintained a Novitiate and Juniorate in Novaliches, and Berchmans College for philosophy studies in Cebu City. In addition it maintained a retreat house (La Ignaciana, Manila), an observatory in Baguio, an institute of social order (Manila) and the Provincial’s residence in the same city. The Society also administered two seminaries, San Jose, Manila and San Jose, Mindanao, the Philippine General Hospital, and the Culion and Zamboanga Sanitarium Chaplaincies. In 1965 Father Horatio dela Costa, S.J. became the first Filipino Provincial. In the sixties, too, a long-time dream came true; the Philippine Province opened its own theologate, Loyola House of Studies, now known as Loyola School of Theology, on the campus of the Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City. Since the erection of the Philippine Province in 1958 to the present a change-over has taken place. Filipino Jesuits have assumed responsibility and taken leadership for the direction and service of the Province. Today the Philippine Province, in addition to all the works in the Philippines, sends young men once more to foreign missions: to Cambodia, Myanmar, and East Timor. We remember with gratitude more than 200 years of the presence of Jesuits in this country. We thank the Lord for the blessing of Jesuits from Europe, the United States, Asia-Pacific, and the Philippines, who have labored in the different ministries of the Province: as scientists at the Manila Observatory, professors in the different Ateneos, pioneers and explorers in Mindanao, as catechists and pastors, as teachers, and spiritual guides for many who desired a deeper relationship with their God.The article above is based on the outline by Fr. Horatio de la Costa, S.J. in the Philippine Clipper of 1958 together with the homilies of Fr. Provincial in Intramuros and at the Ateneo de Zamboanga on the occasion of 150th Anniversary of the return of the Jesuits to the Philippines.  
  • The Dominicans or the Order of Preachers were the fourth friar arrival. 15 Dominicans landed in Cavite on the eve of the feast of Mary Magdalene. These Dominicans of the Santisimo Rosario de Filipinas would elect St. Mary Magdalene as the protector of the order in the Orient. Sto. Domingo de Manila stood on the north side of Intramuros for almost four centuries. Today, the BPI building stands on the site. Fray Diego de Sta. Maria started an orphan school for boys which was adopted by the Dominican Order in 1652 as the St. Peter and Paul School. This school is presently known Colegio de San Juan de Letran. It was 1611 when the Dominican Order began organizing a boarding school for students which is presently known as the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas. The Order of Preachers (OrdofratrumPraedicatorum), after 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order, or Dominicans is a Catholic religious order, created in the year 1214, when Saint Dominic established a religious community in Toulouse. However, the order wasn&apos;t officially recognised until Pope Honorus III in 1216. In England and some other countries the Dominicans are referred to as Blackfriars on account of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits (for the same reason, Carmelites are known as &quot;Whitefriars&quot; and Franciscans as &quot;Greyfriars&quot;). In Paris, the Dominicans are known as Jacobins, because their first convent in Paris was on Rue Saint-Jacques in Paris, and Jacques is Jacobus in Latin. They have also been referred to using a Latin pun, as &quot;domini canes&quot;, or &quot;The Hounds of God&quot;, a reference to the order&apos;s reputation as most obedient servants of the faith, with perhaps a negative connotation or reference to the order&apos;s involvement with the Holy Inquisition. The Dominican Order was founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century under the Augustinian rule. The Dominican Order is one of the great orders of mendicant friars that revolutionized religious life in Europe during the High Middle Ages. Founded to preach the gospel and to combat heresy, the Order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, who is currently Father Carlos Azpiroz Costa. The province of the Philippines, the most populous in the order, is recruited from Spain, where it has several preparatory houses. In the Philippines it has charge of the University of Sto. Tomas, recognized by the government of the United States, two colleges including the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, and six establishments; in China it administers the missions of North and South Fo-Kien, in the Japanese Empire, those of Formosa (now Taiwan) and Shikoku, besides establishments at New Orleans, at Caracas, and at Rome. The province of Spain has seventeen establishments in the Peninsula and the Canaries, as well as the missions of Urubamba, Peru. Since 1910 it has published at Madrid an important review, La CienciaTomista. The province of the Netherlands has a score of establishments, and the missions of Curaçao and Puerto Rico. Other provinces also have their missions. That of Piedmont has establishments at Constantinople and Smyrna; that of Toulouse, in Brazil; that of Lyon, in Cuba, that of Ireland, in Australia and Trinidad and Tobago; that of Belgium, in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), and so on.
  • The last friars to arrive in the Philippines were the Augustinian Recollects. The recollects initially established their mother church outside Intramuros. In Intramuros, their motherhouse was known as the La Yglesia y Convento de San Nicholas de Tolentino. Today, the Manila Bulletin occupies the site. The motherhouse of the Recollects was transferred to Quiapo which is currently known as the all-steel church –the San Sebastian Church. The Order of Augustinian Recollects or simply the Augustinians Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. They are a reformist offshoot from the Augustinian hermit friars and follow the Augustinian Rule.They were founded in 16th century Spain through the 5th Determination of the Chapter of Toledo[1], and their reform emphasized fidelity to the Rule of St. Augustine. The reformers placed special emphasis on community prayer and simplicity of life.On 5 June 1621, the Recollection was raised to the level of a Religious Congregation, giving it the right to divide itself into provinces. The Recollects were formally recognized as an Order in the Catholic Church in 1912.With their arrival on May 1609, the OAR became one of the most important groups in the history of the evangelisation of the Philippines. Many times, the areas given to this Order are the poorest islands in the archipelago. Oftentimes, the ones that are not desired by other orders because of distance from the mainland [3].Being a contemplative order, it was not really their main goal to evangelise the country. Yet because of the great need of evangelisers, the OAR in the Philippines became more active than in the other parts of the world.Their first house was built in Bagumbayan, outside the walls of Manila. Later, they also built a house within the walls which became their house for the next hundreds of years. It was only after the World War II that they were force to abandon the convent because it became virtually uninhabitable.Since they were not planning to be active envangelisers in the beginning, most of their houses were just formation centres. Yet they were forced to open it to the public because the faithful still go and attend Sunday Services with them.Their first parish was in Masinloc, Zambales. However, this was already transferred to the management of the diocese. Other parishes that were given to them early in their ministry in the Philippines were that of Mabalacat, Pampanga; Capaz, Tarlac; and Mamban.They also had missions in Palawan, Calamianes and Caraga (in the northeastern part of Mindanao). They laid the foundation for the capital of Palawan, which is known as Puerto Princesa City. Mindoro and Bohol became part of their missions as well.The province that was heavily influenced by the order is the island of Negros (now divided into two, Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental). Until the present times, the OAR still forms a significant segment of the clergy. Most of the towns in both provinces are also bearing names of towns similar to that of Spain, mainly the places where OAR missionaries came from.Since the creation of the Province of Saint Ezekiel Moreno, the Philiipine Province was officially separated from the Province of Saint Nicolas de Tolentino. Now, the Philippine Province not only supervises the different missions in the Philippines but also in Sierra Leone and China.[edit] The OAR Learning InstitutionsToday, the Order administers two universities: the University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos (founded 1941) in Bacolod City and University of San Jose - Recoletos (founded 1947) in Cebu City. They also administer 3 colleges; San Sebastian College - Recoletos (founded 1941 in Manila); San Sebastian College - Recoletos (founded 1966 in Cavite City); Colegio de Santo Tomas-Recoletos founded in San Carlos City, Negros Occidental; as well as two secondary schools namely Colegio San Nicolas de Tolentino - Recoletos in Talisay City, Negros Occidental and San Pedro Academy in Caidiocan, Valencia, Negros Oriental.Formation Houses and Seminaries includes the Santo Tomas de Villanueva Recoletos Formation House (High School) in San Carlos City, Negros Occidental; CasiciacoRecoleos Seminary / Seminario Mayor - Recoletos de Baguio (Philosophy) in Baguio City; and the Recoletos Formation Center (Theology) in Mira-Nila Homes, Quezon City.[edit] Augustinian Recollects in ChinaThe Recollect foundation in Taiwan is based at Kaohsiung City.[4][5] They are supported by Filipino Recollects from the Province of St. Ezekiel Moreno.
  • On 21 November 1849 the Spanish Governor General of the Philippine Islands, NarcisoClavería, decreed the systematic distribution of surnames and the implementation of the Spanish naming system for Filipinos and Filipinas, thereby producing the CatálogoAlfabético de Apellidos (“Alphabetical Catalogue of Surnames&quot;) comprising of Spanish, Filipino, and HispanicisedChinese words, names, and numbers. Thus many Spanish-sounding Filipino surnames are not surnames common to the Hispanophone world. However, Spanish nobility and colonial administrator surnames were explicitly prohibited.The colonial authorities implemented this decree because too many (early) Christianized Filipinos assumed religious-instrument and saint names. There soon were too many people surnamed &quot;de los Santos&quot; (“of the Saints”), &quot;de la Cruz&quot; (“of the Cross”), &quot;del Rosario&quot; (“of the Rosary”), &quot;Bautista&quot; (“Baptist”), et cetera, which made it difficult for the Spanish colonists to control the Filipino people, and most important, to collect taxes. This Spanish naming custom countered the native Filipino naming custom wherein siblings assumed different surnames, as practised before the Spanish Conquest of the Philippine islands.Moreover, because of this implementation of Spanish naming customs (given name -paternal surname -maternal surname) in the Philippines, a Spanish surname does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry
  • ispanic influence on Filipino culture are customs and traditions of the Philippines which originated from three centuries of Spanish[1] colonization. The Philippines has also received influences from the United States and other cultures of Asia such as Chinese, Malay, Hindu and Muslim. This makes the Philippines a multicultural society. Filipinos today speak a variety of different languages; the most common being Ilocano, Tagalog, Cebuano, English and Spanish. There are thousands of Spanish loan words in most Filipino languages and a Spanish creole language called Chavacano is spoken by about one million Filipinos in the southern Philippines. The Philippines, having been one of the most distant Spanish colonies, received less migration of people from Spain, compared to the colonies in Latin America. Nonetheless, many of the Spanish elements in the culture of the Philippines have become part of the country&apos;s traditions.Spanish Influence on Filipino Visual Arts Build your own FREE website at Tripod.comShare: Facebook | Twitter | Digg | redditThe Spanish Colonial Tradition in Philippine Visual Arts by Eloisa May P. Hernandez When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ’s life and passion. Images of the Holy Family and the saints were introduced to the Filipino psyche through carved santos, the via crucis (Stations of the Cross), engravings on estampas and estampitas, and through paintings on church walls. Though the ethnic art forms such as pottery, weaving and metalwork were retained, the Spanish friars and the Chinese, the colony’s primary trading partner, were slowly introducing newer art forms. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture. Filipino artisans were taught the Chinese brushwork technique in painting. Engraving was also introduced. The concept of patronage emerged. Artisans were commissioned and paid to carve, engrave, and paint. They replaced the arts that were once done in a communal spirit and community setting for rituals. The church, particularly the friars, became the new patron of the arts. Since most art produced during the first two centuries of Spanish occupation were for the church, the friars enforced strict supervision over their production. Until the 19th century, art was only for the church and religious use. Early in the 19th century, with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869 and the development of the agricultural export economy, native indios acquired economic wealth and became what was to be called the &quot;ilustrados,&quot; meaning enlightened and educated. These developments paved the way for Filipinos ilustrados to send their children to universities in Europe. The rise of the &quot;ilustrado&quot; (Filipinos with money and education) class was inevitable. The ilustrados became the new patron of the arts. These events paved the way for the secularization of art in the 19th century. A. Painting The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain,. For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons. Portraits of saints and of the Holy Family became a familiar sight in churches. Other subject matters include the passion of Christ, the Via Crucis, the crucifixion, portrayal of heaven, purgatory and hell. Painters from the Visayas island of Bohol were noted for their skillful manipulation of the technique. Their paintings of saints and religious scenes show figures in frontal and static positions. For the Boholano painters, the more important persons would be depicted bigger than the rest of the figures. Christ normally dwarfs the Roman soldiers in these paintings. Unfortunately, they did not sign their names on their works and no record of their names exists. In the church in Paete, Laguna are two works by Josef Luciano Dans (1805- ca. 1870), probably one of the earliest recorded painters in Philippine art history. Langit, Lupa at Impierno ca. 1850 (Heaven, Earth and Hell), a three-level painting which shows the Holy Trinity, Mary the Mother of Christ, saints, the Seven Blessed Sacraments and a macabre depiction of Hell. The second painting is entitled Purgatorio (Purgatory) which shows the eight forms of punishment the soul passes through for cleansing before reaching Heaven. During the early part of the Spanish occupation, painting was exclusively for the churches and for religious purposes. Occasionally, it was also used for propaganda. Esteban Villanueva of Vigan, Ilocos Sur depicted the Ilocos revolt against the basi monopoly in a 1821. The Spanish government commissioned the work. The fourteen panels show the series of events that led to the crushing of the Ilocano basi workers revolt by Spanish forces. It also showed the appearance of Halley’s comet in the Philippines during that time. Tagalog painters Jose Loden, Tomas Nazario and Miguel de los Reyes, did the first still life paintings in the country. They were commissioned in 1786 by a Spanish botanist to paint the flora and fauna found in the country. The earliest known historical paintings in the Philippines was a mural at the Palacio Real (Royal Palace) in Intramuros entitled The Conquest of the Batanes done in 1783. Unfortunately, it was destroyed during the 1863 earthquake. Secular subject matter in painting only increased during the 19th century. With more tourists, ilustrados and foreigners demanding souvenirs and decorations from the country, tipos del pais developed in painting. These watercolor paintings show the different types of inhabitants in the Philippines in their different native costumes that show their social status and occupation. It also became an album of different native costumes. Damian Domingo y Gabor (ca. 1790-1832) was the most popular artist who worked in this style. In the early 19th century, the rise of the ilustrados saw a rise in the art of portraiture. The need to adorn their newly constructed bahay-na-bato and the want to document their new found wealth and social status, the ilustrados commissioned painters to make portraits of themselves. The works of painters like Simon Flores, Antonio Malantic and JustinianoAscunsion captured the intricately designed jewelry and fashion accessories, the minuet details of the embroidered clothes, and ornately designed domestic furniture of the patrons. The painstaking attention to minuet details characterized miniaturismo. Governor General NarcisoClaveria in 1849 issued a decree that all Philippine natives should assume Spanish names. Letras Y Figuras, (letters and figures), a style developed by Jose Honorato Lozano, combines both tipos del pais and genre paintings by forming the letters of the patron’s name from figures of people in local costumes doing everyday activities. It also utilized landscape scenes as background. In 1821, Damian Domingo opened the first formal fine arts school in the country in his house, the Academia de Dibujo. Perhaps realizing his importance to Philippine art history, Damian Domingo is known for having made the first self-portrait in the country. In 1823, the Real SociedadEconomica Filipina de Amigos del Pais (Royal Economic Society of the Friends of the Colony) opened their own art school. In 1826, the society offered Domingo to be the professor in their school, in effect merging the two art schools. In 1828, Domingo was promoted to school director. Domingo must have taught miniaturismo to his students, but a publication by the academy entitled Elementos de Perspectiva (Elements of Perspective) suggests that he must have also taught the classical ideals of the European academies. Due to lack of funds and probably due to Domingo’s death in 1832, the school eventually closed in 1834. In 1850, under the Junta de Commercio, a new art school, the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura, was opened with 70 enrollees. Enrique Nieto y Zamora, a new employee at the Post Office and a graduate of the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid, was appointed as acting director of the academy. Paintings by Spanish master were brought in to serve as models for the students, propagating the European academic style of painting - using grand subject matter from classical Greek and Roman mythologies, depicting historical scenes, and the use of chiaroscuro. The academy was renamed Escuela de Dibujo, Pintura y Grabado in 1889. It was later incorporated with the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in 1891. In 1893, the school of arts and trades was separated from the academy. The academy was later elevated to the Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado. Other subject matter became increasingly popular such as genre, landscapes (paisajes), and bodegones (still life) with artists like Simon Flores, Lorenzo Guerrero, Felix Martinez, Paz Paterno and her half sister AdelaidaPaterno. Flores’ two extant works, PrimerasLetras and Feeding the Chicken show the close bond between mother and child. The academic style was still favored by the church and government and was used for religious icons. The miniaturist style, though, was favored by ilustrado patrons and continued to prosper. Several Filipino painters had the chance to study and work abroad. Among them were Juan Novicio Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo who became the first international Filipino artists when they won the gold and silver medals in the 1884 Madrid Exposition. Luna’s academic painting Spoliarium won gold medal. It showed the dead and dying Roman Gladiators being dragged into the basement of the Coliseum. It is often interpreted as an allusion to Imperial Spain’s oppression of the natives. Though winning the gold medal, Luna was not awarded the Medal of Excellence, the top award for the competition, because he was a Filipino. The King of Spain, to assuage Luna’s feelings, commissioned him to paint The Battle at Lepanto. Hidalgo won the silver medal for Virgeneschristianasexpuestas al populacho or Christian Virgins Exposed to the Public. The feat of Luna and Hidalgo caught the attention of Dr. Jose Rizal, the Philippine’s National Hero, that in a gathering of Filipinos in Madrid, he gave a speech praising Luna and Hidalgo for their mastery and nationalism In the 1892, Columbus Quadricentennial Art Contest competition sponsored by La Illustracion Filipina, a Filipino weekly publication, a 16-year-old girl named Carmen Zaragosa won first prize for her painting &quot;Dos Intelligencias.&quot; In the 1895 Esposicion Regional de Filipinas in Manila, Zaragosa won a Cooper medal for her painting. Fourteen other women artists participated. Five of them won Cooper medals and four won honorable mentions. B. Sculpture Of all the new art forms introduced, the natives took to sculpture instantly. The carving of anito was transformed into sculpture of the saints. These santos were used primarily for the church altars and retablos. It also replaced the anitos in the altars of the natives’ homes. Carvings for churches include altarpieces called retablos (usually with niches for the icons), the central point of any Catholic church. The retablo houses the tabernacle and the image of the town’s patron saint. Usually referred to as a &quot;cabinet of saints&quot;, one would see a hierarchy of saints depending on their importance to the townspeople. The patron saint would be in the middle; less important saints would be in the periphery. The most elaborate retablos can be seen in the San Agustin Church in Intramuros. Other parts of the church that may have carvings are church doors, pulpits, and carrozas (floats that carry the saints for processions). The façade of churches may be carved from adobe, coral stone, and volcanic rock, among others. It may have carved images of saints, floral decorations or leaf decors. In the case of the Miag-ao Church in Iloilo, the façade is decorated with a carved image of St. Christopher carrying the Christ Child on his shoulders under a coconut tree. Relleves (carved images in relief) usually depict the Via Crucis. It may also show holy images in religious scenes. The earliest known sculptor in the Philippines is the 17th century sacristan, sculptor and silversmith Juan de los Santos (ca. 1590 – ca. 1660) of San Pablo, Laguna. A few of his extant works may be found at the San Agustin Convent museum. Except for de los Santos, carvers were anonymous artisans before the 19th century. But in the mid-19th century, with the rise of the ilustrados and the opening of the country to international trade, higher artistic standards were demanded from the carvers/sculptors. A number of Filipinos found fame in sculpture such as CrispuloHocson, Romualdo de Jesus, Leoncio Asuncion and IsabeloTampinco. The second half of the 19th century, as travel in and around the country considerably improved, saw a marked increase in the demand for non-religious souvenirs. Tipos del pais (human types of the country) sculptures, showing ordinary people doing everyday activities and wearing their local costumes, became the favorite. They also depicted the heads of the various ethnic groups. The inclusion of sculpture in the Academia de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado de Manila’s curriculum in 1879 formalized training in sculpture. Known sculptors during this time were BonifacioArevalo, GracianoNepomuceno, Marcelo Nepomuceno, and Anselmo Espiritu. Philippine National Hero Jose P. Rizal was a sculptor. He took up woodcarving lessons from Romualdo de Jesus and Paete master carver Jose Caancan. Paete, a small woodcarving town in Laguna, Southern Luzon, produced the finest santo carvers during this period. The most prominent name is Mariano Madriñan who won a gold medal in the 1883 Amsterdam Exposition for his Mater Dolorosa (Sorrowful Mother). In 1889, the first woman student, Pelagia Mendoza y Gotianquin, was accepted in the Academia de Dibujo Y Pintura by then Director Lorenzo Rocha. In 1892, Pelagia Mendoza won in the 1892 Columbus Quadricentennial Art Contest with a bust of Christopher Columbus. C. GRAPHIC ARTS Engraving was introduced in the 1590’s by the Spanish colonizers. In 1593, the Dominicans published the La Doctrina Christiana en la Lengua Española y Tagala (The Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Tagalog Language), first book printed in the country. On it was a woodcut engraving of St. Dominic by Juan de Veyra, a Chinese convert. The religious orders owned printing presses and printed mostly prayer books and estampas. The estampas (prints of miraculous images) usually featured portraits of saints and religious scenes. Estampas and estampitas (smaller version of estampas) were distributed during town fiestas to the natives. In the 18th century, copper etching became more popular. Filipino engravers like Francisco Suarez, Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay, Laureano Atlas, and Felipe Sevilla were the first Filipino artists to sign their works. And with words like &quot;IndiosTagalo&quot; or &quot;Indio Filipino&quot;, affixed their social status on their works. Francisco Suarez (ca. 1690 – ca. 1762) and Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1702 – ca. 1765) collaborated to depict landscapes, genre scenes and flora and fauna on the borders of maps commissioned by Fr. Murillo Velarde in 1733. These were probably the first secular images done in the country. The two also illustrated the pasyon written by Gaspar Aquino de Belen entitled Mahalna Passion niJesuChristongPanginoonNatin Na Tola (The Holy Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Verse), possibly the first pasyon written in the country. Laureano Atlas made religious scenes and images. He did one of the earliest known portrait engraved on copper, a portrait of Archbishop Juan Angel Rodriguez in 1743. PhelipeSevilla depicted scenes from the life of Christ. Filipino engravers were the first to depict and reproduce brown madonnas. The Nuestra Senora de Guia was made in 1711, the oldest Marian image. The natives worship this icon like an anitoCopperplate engraving remained popular until the introduction of a new printing medium. Lithography was introduced and this facilitated the printing of newspapers and periodicals in the country. It also enabled the printing of the local edition of Fr. Manuel Blanco’s Flora de Filipinas in 1878. One of the popular newspapers during the 19th century was La Illustracion Filipina published by Don Jose Zaragosa. It had more than 100 issues from November 1891 to February 1895. It usually featured lithograph prints of people, landscapes and genre scenes. Since most of the family members know how to draw (including Carmen Zaragosa mentioned earlier), some of their works must have been published here. Bibliography: Gatbonton, Juan, et.al. Art Philippines. Crucible Workshop Rod Paras-Perez. Edades and the 13 Moderns. Cultural Center of the Philippines Tiongson, Nicanor G. CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Visual Arts, Cultural Center of the Philippines. about the author Eloisa May P. Hernandez teaches Humanities at the Department of Art Studies of the University of the Philippines, Diliman. She worked for the Coordinating Center for Visual Arts, Outreach and Exchange Division, and MuseongKalinangang Pilipino at the Cultural Center of the Philippines. de:http://www.ncca.gov.ph/ &quot;Spanish Made Easy For Filipinos&quot; main web page
  • ispanic influence on Filipino culture are customs and traditions of the Philippines which originated from three centuries of Spanish[1] colonization. The Philippines has also received influences from the United States and other cultures of Asia such as Chinese, Malay, Hindu and Muslim. This makes the Philippines a multicultural society. Filipinos today speak a variety of different languages; the most common being Ilocano, Tagalog, Cebuano, English and Spanish. There are thousands of Spanish loan words in most Filipino languages and a Spanish creole language called Chavacano is spoken by about one million Filipinos in the southern Philippines. The Philippines, having been one of the most distant Spanish colonies, received less migration of people from Spain, compared to the colonies in Latin America. Nonetheless, many of the Spanish elements in the culture of the Philippines have become part of the country&apos;s traditions.Spanish Influence on Filipino Visual Arts Build your own FREE website at Tripod.comShare: Facebook | Twitter | Digg | redditThe Spanish Colonial Tradition in Philippine Visual Arts by Eloisa May P. Hernandez When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ’s life and passion. Images of the Holy Family and the saints were introduced to the Filipino psyche through carved santos, the via crucis (Stations of the Cross), engravings on estampas and estampitas, and through paintings on church walls. Though the ethnic art forms such as pottery, weaving and metalwork were retained, the Spanish friars and the Chinese, the colony’s primary trading partner, were slowly introducing newer art forms. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture. Filipino artisans were taught the Chinese brushwork technique in painting. Engraving was also introduced. The concept of patronage emerged. Artisans were commissioned and paid to carve, engrave, and paint. They replaced the arts that were once done in a communal spirit and community setting for rituals. The church, particularly the friars, became the new patron of the arts. Since most art produced during the first two centuries of Spanish occupation were for the church, the friars enforced strict supervision over their production. Until the 19th century, art was only for the church and religious use. Early in the 19th century, with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869 and the development of the agricultural export economy, native indios acquired economic wealth and became what was to be called the &quot;ilustrados,&quot; meaning enlightened and educated. These developments paved the way for Filipinos ilustrados to send their children to universities in Europe. The rise of the &quot;ilustrado&quot; (Filipinos with money and education) class was inevitable. The ilustrados became the new patron of the arts. These events paved the way for the secularization of art in the 19th century. A. Painting The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain,. For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons. Portraits of saints and of the Holy Family became a familiar sight in churches. Other subject matters include the passion of Christ, the Via Crucis, the crucifixion, portrayal of heaven, purgatory and hell. Painters from the Visayas island of Bohol were noted for their skillful manipulation of the technique. Their paintings of saints and religious scenes show figures in frontal and static positions. For the Boholano painters, the more important persons would be depicted bigger than the rest of the figures. Christ normally dwarfs the Roman soldiers in these paintings. Unfortunately, they did not sign their names on their works and no record of their names exists. In the church in Paete, Laguna are two works by Josef Luciano Dans (1805- ca. 1870), probably one of the earliest recorded painters in Philippine art history. Langit, Lupa at Impierno ca. 1850 (Heaven, Earth and Hell), a three-level painting which shows the Holy Trinity, Mary the Mother of Christ, saints, the Seven Blessed Sacraments and a macabre depiction of Hell. The second painting is entitled Purgatorio (Purgatory) which shows the eight forms of punishment the soul passes through for cleansing before reaching Heaven. During the early part of the Spanish occupation, painting was exclusively for the churches and for religious purposes. Occasionally, it was also used for propaganda. Esteban Villanueva of Vigan, Ilocos Sur depicted the Ilocos revolt against the basi monopoly in a 1821. The Spanish government commissioned the work. The fourteen panels show the series of events that led to the crushing of the Ilocano basi workers revolt by Spanish forces. It also showed the appearance of Halley’s comet in the Philippines during that time. Tagalog painters Jose Loden, Tomas Nazario and Miguel de los Reyes, did the first still life paintings in the country. They were commissioned in 1786 by a Spanish botanist to paint the flora and fauna found in the country. The earliest known historical paintings in the Philippines was a mural at the Palacio Real (Royal Palace) in Intramuros entitled The Conquest of the Batanes done in 1783. Unfortunately, it was destroyed during the 1863 earthquake. Secular subject matter in painting only increased during the 19th century. With more tourists, ilustrados and foreigners demanding souvenirs and decorations from the country, tipos del pais developed in painting. These watercolor paintings show the different types of inhabitants in the Philippines in their different native costumes that show their social status and occupation. It also became an album of different native costumes. Damian Domingo y Gabor (ca. 1790-1832) was the most popular artist who worked in this style. In the early 19th century, the rise of the ilustrados saw a rise in the art of portraiture. The need to adorn their newly constructed bahay-na-bato and the want to document their new found wealth and social status, the ilustrados commissioned painters to make portraits of themselves. The works of painters like Simon Flores, Antonio Malantic and JustinianoAscunsion captured the intricately designed jewelry and fashion accessories, the minuet details of the embroidered clothes, and ornately designed domestic furniture of the patrons. The painstaking attention to minuet details characterized miniaturismo. Governor General NarcisoClaveria in 1849 issued a decree that all Philippine natives should assume Spanish names. Letras Y Figuras, (letters and figures), a style developed by Jose Honorato Lozano, combines both tipos del pais and genre paintings by forming the letters of the patron’s name from figures of people in local costumes doing everyday activities. It also utilized landscape scenes as background. In 1821, Damian Domingo opened the first formal fine arts school in the country in his house, the Academia de Dibujo. Perhaps realizing his importance to Philippine art history, Damian Domingo is known for having made the first self-portrait in the country. In 1823, the Real SociedadEconomica Filipina de Amigos del Pais (Royal Economic Society of the Friends of the Colony) opened their own art school. In 1826, the society offered Domingo to be the professor in their school, in effect merging the two art schools. In 1828, Domingo was promoted to school director. Domingo must have taught miniaturismo to his students, but a publication by the academy entitled Elementos de Perspectiva (Elements of Perspective) suggests that he must have also taught the classical ideals of the European academies. Due to lack of funds and probably due to Domingo’s death in 1832, the school eventually closed in 1834. In 1850, under the Junta de Commercio, a new art school, the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura, was opened with 70 enrollees. Enrique Nieto y Zamora, a new employee at the Post Office and a graduate of the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid, was appointed as acting director of the academy. Paintings by Spanish master were brought in to serve as models for the students, propagating the European academic style of painting - using grand subject matter from classical Greek and Roman mythologies, depicting historical scenes, and the use of chiaroscuro. The academy was renamed Escuela de Dibujo, Pintura y Grabado in 1889. It was later incorporated with the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in 1891. In 1893, the school of arts and trades was separated from the academy. The academy was later elevated to the Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado. Other subject matter became increasingly popular such as genre, landscapes (paisajes), and bodegones (still life) with artists like Simon Flores, Lorenzo Guerrero, Felix Martinez, Paz Paterno and her half sister AdelaidaPaterno. Flores’ two extant works, PrimerasLetras and Feeding the Chicken show the close bond between mother and child. The academic style was still favored by the church and government and was used for religious icons. The miniaturist style, though, was favored by ilustrado patrons and continued to prosper. Several Filipino painters had the chance to study and work abroad. Among them were Juan Novicio Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo who became the first international Filipino artists when they won the gold and silver medals in the 1884 Madrid Exposition. Luna’s academic painting Spoliarium won gold medal. It showed the dead and dying Roman Gladiators being dragged into the basement of the Coliseum. It is often interpreted as an allusion to Imperial Spain’s oppression of the natives. Though winning the gold medal, Luna was not awarded the Medal of Excellence, the top award for the competition, because he was a Filipino. The King of Spain, to assuage Luna’s feelings, commissioned him to paint The Battle at Lepanto. Hidalgo won the silver medal for Virgeneschristianasexpuestas al populacho or Christian Virgins Exposed to the Public. The feat of Luna and Hidalgo caught the attention of Dr. Jose Rizal, the Philippine’s National Hero, that in a gathering of Filipinos in Madrid, he gave a speech praising Luna and Hidalgo for their mastery and nationalism In the 1892, Columbus Quadricentennial Art Contest competition sponsored by La Illustracion Filipina, a Filipino weekly publication, a 16-year-old girl named Carmen Zaragosa won first prize for her painting &quot;Dos Intelligencias.&quot; In the 1895 Esposicion Regional de Filipinas in Manila, Zaragosa won a Cooper medal for her painting. Fourteen other women artists participated. Five of them won Cooper medals and four won honorable mentions. B. Sculpture Of all the new art forms introduced, the natives took to sculpture instantly. The carving of anito was transformed into sculpture of the saints. These santos were used primarily for the church altars and retablos. It also replaced the anitos in the altars of the natives’ homes. Carvings for churches include altarpieces called retablos (usually with niches for the icons), the central point of any Catholic church. The retablo houses the tabernacle and the image of the town’s patron saint. Usually referred to as a &quot;cabinet of saints&quot;, one would see a hierarchy of saints depending on their importance to the townspeople. The patron saint would be in the middle; less important saints would be in the periphery. The most elaborate retablos can be seen in the San Agustin Church in Intramuros. Other parts of the church that may have carvings are church doors, pulpits, and carrozas (floats that carry the saints for processions). The façade of churches may be carved from adobe, coral stone, and volcanic rock, among others. It may have carved images of saints, floral decorations or leaf decors. In the case of the Miag-ao Church in Iloilo, the façade is decorated with a carved image of St. Christopher carrying the Christ Child on his shoulders under a coconut tree. Relleves (carved images in relief) usually depict the Via Crucis. It may also show holy images in religious scenes. The earliest known sculptor in the Philippines is the 17th century sacristan, sculptor and silversmith Juan de los Santos (ca. 1590 – ca. 1660) of San Pablo, Laguna. A few of his extant works may be found at the San Agustin Convent museum. Except for de los Santos, carvers were anonymous artisans before the 19th century. But in the mid-19th century, with the rise of the ilustrados and the opening of the country to international trade, higher artistic standards were demanded from the carvers/sculptors. A number of Filipinos found fame in sculpture such as CrispuloHocson, Romualdo de Jesus, Leoncio Asuncion and IsabeloTampinco. The second half of the 19th century, as travel in and around the country considerably improved, saw a marked increase in the demand for non-religious souvenirs. Tipos del pais (human types of the country) sculptures, showing ordinary people doing everyday activities and wearing their local costumes, became the favorite. They also depicted the heads of the various ethnic groups. The inclusion of sculpture in the Academia de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado de Manila’s curriculum in 1879 formalized training in sculpture. Known sculptors during this time were BonifacioArevalo, GracianoNepomuceno, Marcelo Nepomuceno, and Anselmo Espiritu. Philippine National Hero Jose P. Rizal was a sculptor. He took up woodcarving lessons from Romualdo de Jesus and Paete master carver Jose Caancan. Paete, a small woodcarving town in Laguna, Southern Luzon, produced the finest santo carvers during this period. The most prominent name is Mariano Madriñan who won a gold medal in the 1883 Amsterdam Exposition for his Mater Dolorosa (Sorrowful Mother). In 1889, the first woman student, Pelagia Mendoza y Gotianquin, was accepted in the Academia de Dibujo Y Pintura by then Director Lorenzo Rocha. In 1892, Pelagia Mendoza won in the 1892 Columbus Quadricentennial Art Contest with a bust of Christopher Columbus. C. GRAPHIC ARTS Engraving was introduced in the 1590’s by the Spanish colonizers. In 1593, the Dominicans published the La Doctrina Christiana en la Lengua Española y Tagala (The Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Tagalog Language), first book printed in the country. On it was a woodcut engraving of St. Dominic by Juan de Veyra, a Chinese convert. The religious orders owned printing presses and printed mostly prayer books and estampas. The estampas (prints of miraculous images) usually featured portraits of saints and religious scenes. Estampas and estampitas (smaller version of estampas) were distributed during town fiestas to the natives. In the 18th century, copper etching became more popular. Filipino engravers like Francisco Suarez, Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay, Laureano Atlas, and Felipe Sevilla were the first Filipino artists to sign their works. And with words like &quot;IndiosTagalo&quot; or &quot;Indio Filipino&quot;, affixed their social status on their works. Francisco Suarez (ca. 1690 – ca. 1762) and Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1702 – ca. 1765) collaborated to depict landscapes, genre scenes and flora and fauna on the borders of maps commissioned by Fr. Murillo Velarde in 1733. These were probably the first secular images done in the country. The two also illustrated the pasyon written by Gaspar Aquino de Belen entitled Mahalna Passion niJesuChristongPanginoonNatin Na Tola (The Holy Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Verse), possibly the first pasyon written in the country. Laureano Atlas made religious scenes and images. He did one of the earliest known portrait engraved on copper, a portrait of Archbishop Juan Angel Rodriguez in 1743. PhelipeSevilla depicted scenes from the life of Christ. Filipino engravers were the first to depict and reproduce brown madonnas. The Nuestra Senora de Guia was made in 1711, the oldest Marian image. The natives worship this icon like an anitoCopperplate engraving remained popular until the introduction of a new printing medium. Lithography was introduced and this facilitated the printing of newspapers and periodicals in the country. It also enabled the printing of the local edition of Fr. Manuel Blanco’s Flora de Filipinas in 1878. One of the popular newspapers during the 19th century was La Illustracion Filipina published by Don Jose Zaragosa. It had more than 100 issues from November 1891 to February 1895. It usually featured lithograph prints of people, landscapes and genre scenes. Since most of the family members know how to draw (including Carmen Zaragosa mentioned earlier), some of their works must have been published here. Bibliography: Gatbonton, Juan, et.al. Art Philippines. Crucible Workshop Rod Paras-Perez. Edades and the 13 Moderns. Cultural Center of the Philippines Tiongson, Nicanor G. CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Visual Arts, Cultural Center of the Philippines. about the author Eloisa May P. Hernandez teaches Humanities at the Department of Art Studies of the University of the Philippines, Diliman. She worked for the Coordinating Center for Visual Arts, Outreach and Exchange Division, and MuseongKalinangang Pilipino at the Cultural Center of the Philippines. de:http://www.ncca.gov.ph/ &quot;Spanish Made Easy For Filipinos&quot; main web page
  • During the Spanish period, tribal tutors were replaced by Spanish missionaries and education became religion-oriented. Education became exclusively for the elite in the early years under the Spanish rule. Later, education became accessible to Filipinos with the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863. This decree provided for the establishment of at least one primary school in each town. It also provided for the establishment of a normal school for male teachers. Normal schools (teacher-training schools) were supervised by the Jesuits. Primary education was free. Spanish, as a subject, was compulsory.Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_the_Spaniards_influence_the_educational_system_in_the_Philippines#ixzz1VF6MbkywUnder the Spanish, education of indigenous population was initially left to religious orders, with primary education being overseen by parish friars who generally tolerated the teaching of only religious topics.[8] The friars, recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population, built printing presses to produce material in Baybayin.[7] The friars, made tremendous efforts to educate the native population learning the local languages and the Baybayin script to better communicate with the locals. The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately on reaching the islands and wherever they penetrated, church and school went together. There was no Christian village without its school and all young people attended.[9]The Augustinians opened a school in Cebú in 1565. The Franciscans in 1577 immediately took to the task of teaching the natives how to read and write, besides industrial and agricultural techniques. The Jesuits in 1581 also mainly concentrated on teaching the young. They were followed by the Dominicans in 1587, who started a school in their first mission at Bataan.[10]The Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine) was the first book printed in the Philippines in about 1590 to 1592. A version in Spanish, and in Tagalog, in both Latin script and the commonly used Baybayin script of the Manila Tagalogs of the time was printed in 1593.[11]In 1610 Tomas Pinpin a Filipino printer, writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred as the &quot;Patriarch of Filipino Printing&quot;, wrote his famous &quot;LibrongPagaaralannangmga Tagalog nangWicangCastila&quot;, that was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. The prologue read:“&quot;Let us therefore study, my country men, for although the art of learning is somewhat difficult, yet if we are persevering, we shall soon improve our knowledge.Other Tagalogs like us did not take a year to learn the Spanish language when using my book. This good result has given me satisfaction and encouraged me to print my work, so that all may derive some profit from it.&quot;[12]” In 1590, the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila by the Jesuits, and after the suppression of the Jesuits was incorporated into the University of Santo Tomás as the College of Medicine and Pharmacy.[13] In 1640, the Universidad de San Felipe de Austria was established in Manila. It is the first government or public university in the Philippines. The University of San Ildefonso was founded in Cebú by the Society of Jesus in August 1, 1595 but was closed down after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1769. On April 28, 1611, the University of Santo Tomás was founded in Manila as the Colegio de NuestraSeñora del Santísimo Rosario.By the end of the 16th century, several religious orders had established charity hospitals all over the archipelago and provided the bulk of this public service. These hospitals also became the setting for rudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine.The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José (1601) and took over the management in what became Escuela Municipal (1859, later renamed Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865). The Dominicans on their part had the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán (1620) in ManilaAccess to education by all Filipinos was later implemented through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was free and available to every Filipino regardless of race or social class. Contrary to what the Propaganda of the Spanish–American War tried to depict, they were not religious schools, but schools established, supported and maintained by the Spanish Government.[14] and free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. In 1866, the total population of the Philippines was only 4,411,261. The total public schools was 841 for boys and 833 for girls and the total number of children attending these schools was 135,098 for boys and 95,260 for girls. In 1892, the number of schools had increased to 2,137, 1,087 of which were for boys and 1,050 for girls.[14] By 1898, enrollment in schools at all levels exceeded 200,000 students.[15][16]As a result of the implementation of public education, a new social class of educated Filipinos arose, that came to be known as the Ilustrados. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would later lead the Philippine independence movement, using the Spanish language as their main communication method. Among the Ilustrados who had also studied in Spain were José Rizal, GracianoLópezJaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce or Antonio Luna, who were to lead later the cause of Filipino self-government and independence.[17]
  • Philippine society under spain

    1. 1. Philippine Society under Spain<br />Part 2<br />
    2. 2. Tobacco Monopoly<br />tobacco production was completely controlled by the government<br />brought considerable profits to the government but rampant labor<br />Filipinos resorted to bribery, smuggling, and contraband trade<br />for additional notes, please go to http://www.slideshare.net/rdeleon10061/the-tobacco-monopolybackup<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    3. 3. Royal Company of the Phils.<br /> established in 1785 <br />promoted direct trade between Spain and the Philippines <br />exempted Philippine goods from tariff and encouraged the growth of cash crop economy<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    4. 4. Economic Stagnation<br /> according to the Spaniards was due to:<br /> the indolence of the Filipinos<br />Filipinos’ incapacity for learning<br />alleged congenital inferiority as a race<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    5. 5. Economic Stagnation<br /> the real reasons:<br /> failure of the Spaniards to provide a substitute market for Philippine goods destroyed many native industries<br />government imposed numerous taxes<br />Spaniards disrupted the village economy<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    6. 6. Religious Influences<br /> widespread of Christianity<br />religious orders:<br />Augustinians (1575)<br /> Saint Augustine of Hippo <br />San Augustin Church and Monastery<br />Ateneo de Manila University<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    7. 7. Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Franciscans (1578)<br /> St. Francis of Assisi <br /> Our Lady of the Angels Church – Intramuros and Sta. Ana<br />San Juan de Dios Hospital & San Lazaro Leprosarium<br />VocabulariodelaLenguaTagala<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    8. 8. Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Jesuits (1581)<br /> San Ignacio de Loyola<br />Ateneo de Manila University<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    9. 9. Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Dominicans – Order of Preachers (1587)<br /> St. Dominic<br />Collegio de San Juan de Letran<br />Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas<br />Binondo Church & Sto. Domingo Church <br />Doctrina Christiana<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    10. 10. Religious Influences<br />religious orders:<br />Augustinian Recollects (1606)<br /> St. Augustine<br />Collegio de San Juan de Letran<br />Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas<br />VocabulariodelaLenguaTagala<br />San Sebastian Church<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    11. 11. Religious Influences<br />For additional notes, please go to: <br />http://www.slideshare.net/tzeriapol/religious-results-during-spanish-period<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    12. 12. Social & Cultural Influences<br />the natives refused to cast off their indigenous cultural heritage and accommodated European art, literature, rituals, and practices only after some modifications<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    13. 13. Social & Cultural Influences<br /> use of Gregorian calendar<br /> alphabet<br /> dressing<br /> burial practices<br />wedding practices<br />changes in names<br />adoption of fiestas<br />cuisine<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    14. 14. Social & Cultural Influences<br /> western architecture<br />cottas or fortresses<br />churches – modified Romanesque style<br />antillean house<br /> language – Chavacano, Cebuano<br />literature<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    15. 15. Social & Cultural Influences<br /> painting<br />Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo<br />sculpture<br />retablos<br />relleves (carved images in relief)<br />graphic arts<br />estampas<br />La Illustraccion Filipina<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    16. 16. Influences on Education<br /> religious oriented and controlled by the friars<br /> subject to physical and mental tortures<br />Educational Decree of 1863 establishment of at least one primary school in each town<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    17. 17. Influences on Education<br />Dominicans <br />1611 – University of Sto. Tomas <br />1630 – College of San Juan de Letran<br />Jesuits<br /> 1589 - College of San Ignacio (Manila)<br />1595 – College of San Ildefonso (Cebu)<br />1601 – College of San Jose (Manila)<br />1817 – EscuelaPia> 1859 – Ateneo de Manila<br />.<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    18. 18. Influences on Education<br /> Jesuits<br /> 1589 – Collegio de Sta. Potenciana<br />1632 – Collegio de Sta. Isabel<br />1868 – College of La Concordia<br />1892 – Assumption Convent<br />Beaterios – school for orphaned girls<br />.<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    19. 19. Partial Hispanization<br /> due to the deliberate refusal of the Spaniards to teach the Spanish language.<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />
    20. 20. References<br /> http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Tobacco_Monopoly<br /> http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Royal_Company_of_the_Philippines <br />Filipinos resorted to bribery, smuggling, and contraband trade<br />http://simbahan.net/2010/02/01/the-franciscans-in-the-philippines-1578-1898/<br />http://traveleronfoot.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/the-augustinians-franciscans-jesuits-dominicans-and-recollects/<br />http://www.phjesuits.org/who-we-are/jesuits-in-the-philippines<br />http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Dominicans<br />http://simbahan.net/2009/11/08/the-dominicans-in-the-philippines/<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Augustinian_Recollects<br />http://simbahan.net/2009/09/21/augustinian-recollects-in-the-philippines-until-1898/<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_influence_on_Filipino_culture<br />http://filipinokastila.tripod.com/paint.html<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_Philippines<br />http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Education_in_the_Philippines<br />Philippine Society under Spain, p2<br />Thelma Villaflores<br />

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