He decided to publish a newspaper, “La Independencia.” This four-page daily was filled with articles, short stories, patriotic songs and poems. The staff was installed in one of the coaches of the train that ran from Manila to Pangasinan. The paper came out in September 1898, and was an instant success, a movable feast of information, humThe demise of Luna, the most brilliant and capable of the Filipino generals, was a decisive factor in the fight against the American forces. Even the Americans developed an astonished admiration for him. One of them, General Hughes, said of his death, probably relishing the irony, “The Filipinos had only one general, and they have killed him.”or and good writing printing 4,000 copies, many more than all the other newspapers put together.
From BaliwagBulacanNaning – his nicknameKalipulako from Lapu-lapuTikbalang – folklore
Jose Ma. Panganiban was born on 1 February 1863 in Mambulao, Camarines Norte, a town which was subsequently renamed after him. His parents were Vicente Panganiban, originally from Hagonoy, Bulacan, and Juana Enverga. He was schooled at home by his mother, a native of Mauban, Quezon, who taught him the "cartilla", "caton", and catechism. When his mother prematurely died, Jose Ma. Panganiban was sent to the capital town Daet to study. He was enrolled by his father in the diocesan seminary of Nueva Caceres, now Naga, Camarines Sur excelling and completing his philosophy course in 1882. He was sent to Manila to study at Colegio de San Juan de Letran and obtained a bachelors degree with the financial help of the clerical rector of the seminary, Fr. Santoja. Panganiban later studied medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. While at the University in 1887, he wrote Anatomia de Regines which was recognized as one of his brilliant literary works. His papers on general pathologgy, therapeutics and surgical anatomy was also awarded prizes. An anthology of his works was gathered by Fr. Gregorio Echevarria, rector of University of Santo Tomas, and sent to be exhibited at the 1887 Exposicion General de Filipinas in Madrid.  Activities for the Propaganda MovementIn May 1888 Jose Ma. Panganiban continued his studies at the University of Barcelona, Spain, where he met other Filipino propagandists agitating for reforms in the colony. He joined reformist groups such as the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina and La Solidaridad because he believed in instituting reforms in the Philippines, and used the pen names "Jomapa" and "J.M.P." On 25 April 1889 Panganiban signed a petition addressed to the Spanish Minister of Colonies, requesting Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes. Being one of the writers of the La Solidaridad, he called the attention of the Spaniards on the freedom of the press and criticized the educational system in the Philippines. His works were recognized by Jose Rizal who even said "He was a true orator, of easy and energetic words, vigorous in concepts and of practical and transcedental ideas". Among the articles he published were "El Pensamiento", "La Universidad de Manila: Su Plan de Estudio", and "Los NuevosAyuntamientos de Filipinas". He continued to write popems and short stories, including "AngLupangTinubuan", "Noches en Mambulao", "Sa Akingbuhay", "Bahia de Mambulao", "La Mejerde Oro", "Amor mio", "Clarita Perez" and "Kandeng". Panganiban contracted tuberculosis and apologized to Rizal that he couldn't help further in the movement. He confided in Rizal that, "If I only have the strength I had before, I will work with you unto the bitter end". He died of a pulmunary ailment in Barcelona on 19 August 1890 at his boarding house at Rambla de Canaletas 2. Jose Rizal eulogized Panganiban as an "excellent companion of labor and difficulty... endowed with uncommon talent, with privileged intelligence, and with indefatigable industry, (he) was one of the sacred, legitimate hopes of his unfortunate country.... What should be grieved iat is the thought that he died without finishing the noble mission which his exceptional faculties had destined for him."  LegacyThe town of Mambulao, Camarines Norte was renamed after its great son by Act No. 4155 issued on 1 December 1934. The historian Domingo Abella located Panganiban's remain in a Barcelona cemetery and brought them back to the Philippines.
Among his other works include the first novel written by a native Filipino, Ninay (1885), and the first Filipino collection of poems in Spanish, Sampaguitas y otraspoesíasvarias (Jasmines and Other Poems), published in Madrid in 1880.He is called the mediator of the Spaniards and Filipinos to achieve peace deal with the Spaniards. According to him, because Spanish is less than a hundred people with incoherence in the Philippines.Despite Paterno's prominence in the many upheavals that defined the birth of the Philippine nation during his lifetime, Paterno's legacy is largely infamous among Philippine historians and nationalists.Philippine historian ResilMojares notes that:History has not been kind to Pedro Paterno. A century ago, he was one of the country's premier intellectuals, blazing trails in Philippine letters. Today he is ignored in many of the fields in which he once held forth with much eminence, real and imagined. No full length biography or extended review of his corpus of writings has been written, and no one reads him today.Much of this is attributed to Paterno's penchant for turncoatism, as described by historian AmbethOcampo, who sums up his career thus:Remember, Paterno was one of the greatest "balimbing" [turncoats] in history (perhaps he was the original balimbing in Philippine political history). He was first on the Spanish side, then when the declaration of independence was made in 1898, he wormed his way to power and became president of the Malolos Congress in 1899, then sensing the change in political winds after the establishment of the American colonial government, he became a member of the First Philippine Assembly.
PHILIPPINE LITERATURE During the Enlightenment Period
Enlightenment is an 18th century intellectual movement in Western Europe that emphasized reason and science in philosophy and in the study of human culture and the natural world. In the Philippines, it mirrored the Filipinos’ desire for reforms Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Graciano Lopez - Jaena journalist, orator from Iloilo pen name: Diego Laura wrote Fray Botod when he was 18 went to Spain in 1879 to flee the wrath of the Spanish friars died of tuberculosis in Barcelona on January 20, 1896 Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
La Solidaridad official newspaper of the Propaganda Movement aims: Philippines be a province of Spain Representation in the Cortes Secularization of parishes Freedom of assembly and speech Equal rights before the law Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Marcelo H. del Pilar writer, journalist, satirist, revolutionary leader, Illustrado editor of Diariong Tagalog went to Spain in 1889 to flee from the Spanish friars and authorities died of tuberculosis in Barcelona on July 4, 1896 Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Marcelo H. del Pilar Father of Philippine Masonry Legacy SamahangPlaridel (a fellowship of journalists and other communicators that aims to propagate Marcelo H. del Pilar’s ideals) Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Macelo H. del Pilar pen names: Plaridel, Dolores Manapat, Piping Dilat, Pupdoh, Kupang, SilingLabuyo, Maitalaga, L.O. Crame, Carmelo Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Marcelo H. del Pilar works: Dasalan at Tocsohan Kaii(n)gat Kayo SagotsaEspanyasaHibikngPilipinas Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Pedro Paterno politician, poet, novelist, lawyer pen name: Justo DesiderioMagalang works: Ninay (1885) – the first social novel in Spanish by a Filipino Sampaguitas y otras poesías varias (Jasmines and OtherPoems) (1880) Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
Jose Maria Panganiban doctor, journalist, orator pen name: Jomapa, J.M.P. works: Anatomia de Regines AngLupangTinubuan Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores
References Microsoft Encarta 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_solidaridad http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcelo_H._del_Pilar http://kapitbisig.com/philippines/filipino-writers-pseudonyms-pen-names.956 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Luna http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_A._Paterno Enlightenment Period Thelma V. Villaflores