Lecture the precolonial filipinos


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Lecture # 2 for Phil Gov class

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  • Cleanliness and neatnessBathed daily at noonHomes are cleanTattoesTo enhance beautyTo show man’s war records
  • Tuba – coconut palms – all over the countryBasi – ilocos – sugar canePangasi – bisaya – riceLambanog – tagalog – coconut palmTapuy – igorot – distilled from rice
  • tuba
  • Basi is the local beverage of Ilocos in northern Luzon in San Ildefonso where it has been consumed since before the Spanish conquest. In the Philippines, commercial basi is produced by first crushing sugarcane and extracting the juice. The juice is boiled in vats and then stored in earthen jars. Once the juice has cooled, flavorings made of ground glutinous rice and duhat (java plum) bark or other fruits or barks is added. The jars are then sealed with banana leaves and allowed to ferment for several years. The resulting drink is pale red in color. If fermented longer, it turns into suka or vinegar.The 1807 Basi Revolt in Piddig, Ilocos Norte, occurred when the Philippines' Spanish rulers effectively banning private manufacture of the beverage. A Basi festival is held annually in Naguilian, La Union.
  • tapuypangasi
  • lambanogWine made of nipa palm or coconut. Sometimes known in Asia as arrack or coconut vodka.
  • Filipinos know how to read and writeLiterature – oral and writtenEducation Children studied in their homesFather and sons – warriors, hunters, fishermenMother and daughters – sex hygiene, cooking, sewing
  • The Butuan Silver Palaeograph, also known as the "Butuan Silver Strip", is a piece of metal with inscriptions found in Butuan province in mid-1970s by a team of archaeologists from the National Museum, of the Philippines. Treasure hunters who were looking for old ceramics and goldornaments discovered this metal strip inside a wooden coffin. Coffins of the same characteristics, which dated back to the 14th and 15th centuries, were found in the site, however, according to Dr. Jesus Peralta, found inside were humanfossils with artificially deformed skulls - a practice limited to Southern Philippines and unpopular in Luzon. Because of the similarities found between the coffins, it is reasonable for the archaeologists to assume that the latter came from that same era. But debates arose regarding the origin of the said artifact, but until now, it is considered to belong to Butuan where it was found. Dr. Boechari of Indonesia, said Peralta, identified the writings as very close to a Javanese script that existed from 12th to 15th century. This yet-to-be-decipher Butuanpalaeograph is now in the hands of Proceso Gonzales, the city engineer of Butuan.
  • Dating back between the 14th and 16th centuries, the Calatagan pot is one of the country’s most valuable cultural and anthropological artifacts. Twelve centimeters high, 20.2 centimeters wide, and weighing 872 grams, the pot was discovered by locals in an archaeological digging in Calatagan, Batangas in 1958.The locals sold it for six pesos to an Alfredo Evangelista. The pot was then purchased by the Anthropological Foundation of the Philippines and donated to the National Museum.Since its discovery, several experts have tried but failed to decipher the inscription. For one, Tolentino, known for his UP Oblation sculpture, used séance in interpreting the symbols, which resulted to:Labag man ngalang (sa) aki’t (kalooban)Kanino man, kayinaíymag-alay,gaano man angkanyangkakailanganin, (sakabila)Aba! kanino man ngaiyangaling,labisangganyangatingpakikinabangin (sawakas) (napagpapalaniBathala). (Though it may be against me and (my will)Whoever, offer to motherWhatever she may need (there beyond)And from whoever that may have come fromWe will benefitGreatly from it (in the end) (with God’s grace).)Tolentino, however, offered no explanation and his effort was ignored. Later, Potet in his doctoral dissertation, “Morphologie du Philippin,” provided a transliteration of the Calatagan writing. The symbols were identified by using familiar symbols from another script, based on the assumption that the script has the same characteristics.Potet, together with other scholars who tried, like Juan Francisco, AntoonPostma, Harold Conklin, and Johannes de Casper, had not been able to come up with a transliteration, whether complete or partial.
  • Found in 1989 in the mouth of the Lumbang river, a subsidiary of the Laguna de Bay, the Laguna copperplate is very exciting because the text mentions dates, names of people and towns that still exist today. This crushes arguments that the artifacts with writings are rare because they were just brought to the Philippines during trade. Obviously, the Laguna Copperplate was made by the inhabitants of old Philippines. It was determined that the date written in the text corresponds to Monday, April 21, 900 C.E.. The translation of the text was facilitated because the writing is related to an ancient Indonesian script called kavi. The text itself is a mixture of Sanskrit, Old Malay and Old Tagalog hinting to Hindu influences even before the muslims arrived. Obviously, there is a lot of the Philippines prehispanic history that is not known.The Laguna Copperplate was translated in 1990 by AntoonPostma, a Dutch expert in ancient Philippine scripts and Mangyan writing, and Dr. Johann de Casparis, an expert in ancient Indonesian scripts.Long Live! Year of Siyaka 822, month of Waisaka, according to astronomy. The fourth day of the waning moon, Monday. On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Buka, the children of the HonourableNamwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the Commander in Chief of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa. By this order, through the scribe, the HonourableNamwaran has been forgiven of all and is released from his debts and arrears of 1 katî and 8 suwarna before the Honourable Lord Minister of Puliran, Ka Sumuran by the authority of the Lord Minister of Pailah. Because of his faithful service as a subject of the Chief, the Honourable and widely renowned Lord Minister of Binwangan recognized all the living relatives of Namwaran who were claimed by the Chief of Dewata, represented by the Chief of Medang. Yes, therefore the living descendants of the HonourableNamwaran are forgiven, indeed, of any and all debts of the HonourableNamwaran to the Chief of Dewata. This, in any case, shall declare to whomever henceforth that on some future day should there be a man who claims that no release from the debt of the Honourable... If you want to read more about the Laguna Copperplate, visit A Philippine Leaf
  • Kudyapi – Tagalog guitarBalinging – Igorot nose fluteLitgit – Negrito violinDiw-diw-as – Tingian mouth organKalibit – Kalinga bamboo harpLantoy – Visayan clarinetSuracan – Subanun cymbalGabbang – Taosug xylophoneTugo – Tiruray drumTambuli – Tagalog trumpetGansa – Ifugao gong
  • Kudyapi - Maranao west central mindanao
  • One-piece wood sculpture of an Ifugao nose flutist done in acacia-   The pose is traditional as well as the craft-   The Cordillera people are master flutist and poses various wind instruments used for personal and public playing-   Fully varnished-   Cordillera craft, Northern Luzonhttp://www.koleksyon.com/artedepilipinas_dtail/soni-65.asphttp://www.google.com.ph/search?um=1&hl=en&rlz=1G1GGLQ_ENPH325&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=1j4HTt__LorWmAXD54DIDQ&ved=0CDUQBSgA&q=balingbing+igorot+nose+flute&spell=1&biw=1280&bih=653
  • diw-diw-as (Tinguian)Diw-diw-as is an instrument used in northern part of the country. It has 5 slender bamboo that tied to each other.......http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://class.csueastbay.edu/anthropologymuseum/virtmus/Philippines/Peoples/Images/Tinguan_playing_diwdiwas.JPG&imgrefurl=http://class.csueastbay.edu/anthropologymuseum/virtmus/Philippines/Crafts/Music.htm&usg=__PH2UPI7k7WXBPCIuuWMClJAcyFk=&h=412&w=277&sz=22&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=tlo3L1poMYHrnM:&tbnh=165&tbnw=111&ei=pEAHTpjwN4L6sAPh1cXcDQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3Ddiw-diw-as%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1G1GGLQ_ENPH325%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D653%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=132&vpy=50&dur=2327&hovh=274&hovw=184&tx=138&ty=176&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&biw=1280&bih=653http://homeworks-edsci.blogspot.com/2010/11/mga-instrumentong-etniko.html
  • KulintangThe instrument called the “kulintang” (or its other derivative terms) consist of a row/set of 5 to 9 graduated pot gongs, horizontally laid upon a frame arranged in order of pitch with the lowest gong found on the players’ left.[15] The gongs are laid in the instrument face side up atop two cords/strings running parallel to the entire length of the frame, with bamboo/wooden sticks/bars resting perpendicular across the frame creating an entire kulintang set called a pasangan.[16]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kulintanghttp://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://kidstale-nm.com/Kulintang%2520instrument.jpg&imgrefurl=http://kidstale-nm.com/Kulintang.html&usg=__wSMUOnU-CvFYLy_Za5kDCwp-7w8=&h=533&w=400&sz=55&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=65iSifi5l_oXUM:&tbnh=167&tbnw=121&ei=fEQHTvXbMOahmQWuvry1DQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dkulintang%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D653%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=360&vpy=94&dur=10833&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=139&ty=185&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&biw=1280&bih=653http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Kulintang_03.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kulintang_03.jpg&usg=__DcBFvFkHo4BVt2GwKnOsblpSU_c=&h=1456&w=2592&sz=1123&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=m3d5ao4Hn-by_M:&tbnh=115&tbnw=205&ei=fEQHTvXbMOahmQWuvry1DQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dkulintang%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D653%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=312&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:0&tx=82&ty=45&biw=1280&bih=653
  • Tagumpay – Tagalog song of victoryKalusan – Batanes rowing songAyeg-klu – Igorot serenade songBactal – Tagbanua death songDal-lot – Ilocano ballad songKuilay-kuilay – Tinaguian wine songTudob – Agusan harvest song
  • Kumintang – Tagalog love danceBinaylan – Manobo courtship danceSagayan – Maranaw war danceKinnoton – Ilocano ants’ danceUya-uy – Ifugao courtship danceTadek – Tinguian love danceKandingan – Muslim wedding dance
  • PaintingsTatooes – To enhance beautyTo show man’s war recordArchitecture – Houses made of wood, bamboo, palm leavesSilong and batalanBagobos & Kalingas – tree housesBadjaos – sea houses
  • The Manunggul Jar was recovered at Chamber A of Manunggul Cave in Palawan.  It is an elaborately designed burial jar with anthropomorphic figures on top of the cover that represent souls sailing to the afterworld in a death boat.  The figure on the rear is holding a steering paddle with both hands;  the blade of the paddle is missing.  Both figures appear to be wearing a band tied over the crown of the head and under the jaw.  The manner in which the hands of the front figure are folded across the chest is a widespread practice in the Philippines and Southeast Asia when arranging the corpse.    The prao is carved like a head with eyes, nose, and mouth.  This motif of carving is still found on the traditional sea vessels of the Sulu Archipelago, Borneo, Malaysia.  The execution of the ears, eyes, and nose has similarities with the contemporary woodcarvings of Taiwan, the Philippines, and many areas in Southeast Asia.  It is dated to as early as 710 - 890 B.C.  The Manunggul jar  was declared a National Treasure and its portrait is on the 1000 Philippine peso bill. 
  • The Manunggul Jar was recovered at Chamber A of Manunggul Cave in Palawan.  It is an elaborately designed burial jar with anthropomorphic figures on top of the cover that represent souls sailing to the afterworld in a death boat.  The figure on the rear is holding a steering paddle with both hands;  the blade of the paddle is missing.  Both figures appear to be wearing a band tied over the crown of the head and under the jaw.  The manner in which the hands of the front figure are folded across the chest is a widespread practice in the Philippines and Southeast Asia when arranging the corpse.    The prao is carved like a head with eyes, nose, and mouth.  This motif of carving is still found on the traditional sea vessels of the Sulu Archipelago, Borneo, Malaysia.  The execution of the ears, eyes, and nose has similarities with the contemporary woodcarvings of Taiwan, the Philippines, and many areas in Southeast Asia.  It is dated to as early as 710 - 890 B.C.  The Manunggul jar  was declared a National Treasure and its portrait is on the 1000 Philippine peso bill. 
  • The anthropomorphic secondary burial jars from Pinol, Maitum, Saranggani Province in Mindanao date back to the Metal Age.  The site had been dated to 830 +/-60 B.P. (calibrated date of A.D. 70 to 370) and 1920 +/- 50 B.P. (cal. date of 5 B.C.  to A.D. 225).   The radiocarbon dates were obtained from the soot samples taken from the small earthenware vessel found inside one of the anthropomorphic burial jar.  These burial jars are made of earthenware designed and formed like human figures with complete facial characteristics.  These were associated with metal implements; glass beads and bracelets; shell spoon, scoop, bracelets and pendants; earthenware potteries with incised designs and cut-out foot-rings; non-anthropomorphic burial jars.
  • Many parts of the country have lively woodcarving traditions. The Cordillera groups carve anito figures called bulol which double as ancestral spirits and granary gods. They are often found in pairs to signify the value of fertility. Human and animal motifs are also integrated into parts of houses such as door posts, as well as household objects such as bowls, forks and spoons.            In Southern Philippines, the Maranao and the Tausog of Mindanao are known for their okir-a-datu, ornate curvilinear designs and motifs applied to woodcarving. The principal okir designs are the sarimanok, the naga and the pakorabong. The sarimanok carved in wood, simply varnished or painted in many colors (it is also executed in brass), is the stylized design of a bird holding a fish in its beak or standing on a base in the shape of fish. While its meaning derives from epics and myths, it also alludes to Lake Lanao with its fertile waters. The naga has the form of an elaborate mythical serpent with a vigorous S-curve and numerous curvilinear motifs to suggest its scales. The pakorabong is a stylized growing fern with a broad base gracefully tapering upwards. The sarimanok and naga are found in the panolong, the extended floor beam of the torogan or the large Sultan’s house, and it its interior beams and posts.The Tagbanua of Palawan carve wooden figures of different kinds of birds and animals. Again, their meanings are linked to religion and ritual. For birds play an important part in Tagbanua mythology as messengers that link the many levels of their heaven. The animals and other creatures that they carve, such as the pig and the wild boar, have a part in ritual as sacrificial offerings. Their carvings are of blackened wood, incised with geometric designs that bring out the original light tone of the material.
  • HeadKnowledge – kaluluwaLanguage – pagsasagisagBody – ginhawaANG MGA BISAYANG "PINTADO" noongunangmilenyo ay nangangayaw (nangdirigma) hindilamangsamgapulongPilipinas. UmaabotsilahanggangtimogTsina, at maaringhanggang Cambodia at Vietnam:"A thirteenth-century Chinese text provides a vivid description of the 'Pi-she-ya' ('painted or tattooed ones' [pintados, in Spani...sh]) maritime raiders, probably Visayans from the central Philippines, who created fear along the western littoral of the Philippines in the early first millennium A.D., seizing slaves and booty from coastal settlements (Chen 1966:271; Craig 1914:4; Laufer 1907:253-255; Scott 1984:74-75). The Pi-she-ya are even named as possible culprits in a series of thirteenth-century attacks on Cham settlements and other coastal centers of the Southeast Asian mainland." [Junker 2000:344]Tingnan din ang 'The Visayan Raiders of China Coast, 1174-1190 AD" niEfrenIsorena (Phil. Quarterly of Culture & Society, Vol. 32, No. 2, June 2004).
  •             Jewelry, another ancient art, began as amulets and charms to ward off evil spirits or to give supernatural powers to the wearer. It was only later that is assumed a purely ornamental character. The Cordillera groups have an ancient amulet design called the ling-ling-o, said to signify fertility, found in necklaces, rings and earrings. The T’boli wear some of the most splendid body ornaments in brass chains and bells, strings and nets of multi-colored beads, and fine chains of horsehair forming neckpieces, earrings and rings, bracelets and anklets. Related to religious belief and to social function, body ornaments are worn to please the gods, to signify the status of the wearer and enhance her charms. A belt made of a row of brass bells that tinkle with every movement calls attention to the presence of a young marriageable girl. Often, jewelry is worn along with elaborate tattoos on and around the arms and legs that function as a permanent body design with motif from nature related to the animist worldview. Even in our day, anting-anting medals with their mystical symbols and figures in relief are worn by the folk as amulets rather than as mere body ornaments. 
  •  Leta-leta Cave, Langen Island, El Nido, Palawan was excavated in 1965 by Dr. Robert Fox. Leta-leta Cave is an important burial site belonging to the Late Neolithic Period where an assemblage of stone and shell artifacts associated with sophisticated pottery and nephrite adzes and axes were recovered.  Other materials include stone ornaments and shell beads.
  • pair of garuda instruments – eastern bisayas 10 -13th century
  • The Cordillera groups have an ancient amulet design called the ling-ling-o, said to signify fertility, found in necklaces, rings and earrings.
  • Bagobos and Kalingas’ tree houses
  • Badjaos sea houses
  • Causes of warLand grabbingStealing of wifeRevenge
  • Lakan and lakambini = marriage – friendshipSandugo – treaty of friendship and alliance (blood compact)
  • Panday, palangand lantakaThe term "panday" in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines means "metal worker" or "ironsmith." In the Bocabulario of Fray Diego Bergaño, panday means “smithy, a worker on metals, like a silversmith”. Old tradition maintains that PandayPira even went as far as Ilocos and Isabela in the north and Batangas in the south of Luzon in training the early villagers in the metal smith industry. His name “Pira” may have come from at least two possible origins: pilak, meaning “silver”; or pirah, a two-handed chopping and cutting tool, broad backed with deeply concave blade parang (like the Philippine-Indonesian barong and wedung). The parang is the Malay equivalent of the machete, or the Kapampanganpalang, the big knife or bolo.On the other hand, the swivel cannon known as the lantaka is not exclusive to the Philippines, but throughout Southeast Asia. In Indonesia and Malaysia, the majority of the cannons are Dutch & Portuguese, cast in Europe as well as in their colonies. Usually no longer than 2 meters, it may be as small as 2cm in length, although the average length is 120cm-160cm. It was used in obligatory salutes, ceremonial firings as well as a form of currency. A man’s wealth was determined by the number of cannons he owned. In general, the finer lantakas were cast by the Dutch colonials after 1650 in Malaysia and Indonesia. In fact, the finer detail, design and quality control prevailed as many were founded in Holland for export. A number of foundries were also located in Java and Sumatra, in particular, Batavia - the capital of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia. These guns were primarily cast as currency for trading spices. The Portuguese lantaka were usually cast in Malaysia and Borneo up to the early 1600's. They were not as refined as the Dutch but rather set the standard design which the Dutch would later replicate, embellishing with various designs. The word lantaka may have been derived from the Malaysian dialect; it is generally applied to guns of this unique lantaka design. However in Kapampangan, there is a plant called balantakan which bears seed-fruits which are like white beads. In Lubao, these beads when dried were used as pellets for sulbatana (blow-pipe guns) even during the postwar period.
  • Philippine weapons of offense and defense: Spears, lances, and halberds. Bows, arrows, and arrow cases. Blowguns, darts, and dart cases. Clubbed weapons and shields. Hand weapons for piercing and stabbing. Bolos. Cutting and slashing blades. Swords for cutting and chopping. Beheading swords. Head axes. Straight and wavy krisses. Circular shields for parrying and targets. Oblong, pronged, clubbed, and tufted shields of hollowed wood. Body armor of horn, hide, cordage, and fiber construction.From: The Collection of Primitive Weapons and Armor of the Philippine Islands in the United States National Museum, by Herbert W. Krieger (Smithsonian Institution; 1926: United States National Museum Bulletin No. 137)Krieger, Moro, Weapons
  • Astronomy – the pre colonial Filipinos had total understanding of the universe.According to Dr. Otley Beyer, the Ifugaos posses the world’s most perfect calendar. 1 year = 13 months = 28 daysTumunoh calendar keeper13 strings – 28 knots + 1 on the 13th stringBisayans7 days = 1 week12 months = 1 year = 356 days30 days and 26 daysMath (Weights and Measures)Talaro – balance with scaleMeasures of capacity:Kaban = 25 gantasSalop = 1 gantaKaguitna = half gantaGatang = one chupaLengthDipa = 2 human hands extendedDangkal = tip of thumb to the middle fingerTumuro = tip of thumb to the forefingerSandamak = five fingers present togetherSandali = width of one fingerCoinage Ancient coins in jars – gusiPiloncitos – old coins with the letter M embossed (Malayan)Conical shape – melted gold in folded leavesDomestic and foreign trade - barter Agriculture / IndustriesFarming / KainginFishing, mining, lumbering, weaving, metal workEngineeringForts, irrigation, rice terraces
  • Bathala – supreme godAnito – spiritsMaganito – sacrificesKatalona or baylona – priest – priestessBelief in life after death
  • The Ilokanos address the forces of nature as ApoLesser gods:Apo Tudo – rainApo Init – sunApo Pagay – rice plantSupreme GodApo Langit – lord heaven
  • Oral ugali (customs) Punishmentslaziness - slaverysingingatnights, cheating in business, stealing – exposure to ants, whipping or fines
  • Alipingnamamahay:Tagalogs served their masters during the planting and harvest seasons performed other tasks (rowed for their masters in the latter’s trips, helped them in the construction of their houses, served their visitors, etc) have their own families and dwellings reported for work in their master’s households only when their services are neededMuslim Filipinos: called banyaga (have the same conditions)AlipingSagigilid (the closest to slaves) no property of their own lived with their masters could not even marry without their master’s consentSocial mobility – anyone could go up or down the social ladderCauses of Slavery birthPurchasecaptured in warsfailure to pay debtspunishments for crimes
  • Babae – the legendary first womanLalahon – Bisayan goddess of the volcanoesKalangitan – sultana of Pasig and LakanDula’s grandmotherParamisuli – first sultana of Jolo
  • Relatives wear rattan bands – neck, arm, legLarao – mourning for deceased datu
  • Adom – invisible to the human eyeUiga – crossing a river without getting wet
  • Mai – Land of Barbarians (according to the Chinese)Archipelago of St. Lazarus (according to Magellan)
  • Lecture the precolonial filipinos

    2. 2. Clothing<br />Male<br />kanggan, bahag, putong, <br />Female<br />baro or camisa, saya or patadyong, tapis<br />Ornaments are made of gold and precious stones.<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5. Food and Wine<br />Tuba<br />Basi<br />Pangasi<br />Lambanog<br />Tapuy<br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Writing & Literacy<br />Alphabet <br />the silverpaleograph (Butuan)<br />earthenware pot (Calatagan, Batangas)<br />copper plate (Laguna de Bay)<br />
    11. 11. Baybayin<br />
    12. 12. Butuan Silver Palaeograph<br />
    13. 13. Calatagan Earthenware Pot<br />
    14. 14. Laguna Copperplate<br />
    15. 15. Literature, Music & Dance<br />Oral literature<br />Instruments <br />Kudyapi - Suracan<br />Balinging - Gabbang<br />Tugo - Tambuli<br />Diw-diw-as <br />Gansa<br />Lantoy<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17.
    18. 18.
    19. 19.
    20. 20. Literature, Music & Dance<br />Songs<br />Tagumpay<br />Kalusan<br />Ayeg-ku<br />Bactal<br /> Dal-lot<br />Kuilay-kuilay<br />Tudob<br />
    21. 21. Literature, Music & Dance<br />Dances<br />Kumintang<br />Binaylan<br />Sagayan<br />Kinnoton<br />Uya-uy<br />Tadek<br />Kandingan<br />
    22. 22. Arts & Architecture<br />Carvings<br />Sculpture<br />Paintings<br />Jewelrymaking<br />Houses<br />
    23. 23. Manunggul Jar<br />
    24. 24. Manunggul Jar<br />
    25. 25. Maitum Burial Jar<br />
    26. 26. Wood Carvings<br />
    27. 27. Ifugao Sculpture<br />
    28. 28. Painting <br />
    29. 29. Jewelry<br />
    30. 30. Jewelry<br />
    31. 31. Jewelry<br />
    32. 32. Jewelry<br />
    33. 33. Jewelry<br />
    34. 34. Houses<br />
    35. 35. Houses<br />
    36. 36. Houses<br />
    37. 37. Technology<br />Weapons & Armors<br />bow and arrow<br />sumpit (blowgun)<br />daggers<br />swords (barong, bolo, kris, kampilan)<br />lantaka (bronze canon)<br />kalasag<br />
    38. 38. Technology<br />Weapons & Armors . . . <br />kuta<br />karakao and vinta (warvessels)<br />
    39. 39. Weapons<br />
    40. 40. Weapons<br />
    41. 41. Weapons<br />
    42. 42. Science<br />Astronomy<br />Math<br />Agriculture/Industries<br />Engineering<br />
    43. 43. Rice Terraces<br />
    44. 44. Religion<br />SupremeGod<br />Bathala - Mamarsua<br />Diwata - Tuhan<br />Kabunian<br />Mansilatan<br />Makaptan<br /> Laon<br />Lumauig<br />
    45. 45. Religion<br />Lower Class of Deities<br />Diwa<br />Diwata<br />Tuhan<br />Anito<br /><ul><li>Animism</li></li></ul><li>PoliticalOrganization<br />Barangay – independentpoliticalunits<br />consisted of 30 – 100 families<br />ruled by a chieftain<br />
    46. 46. PoliticalOrganization<br />Powers of a Chieftain:<br /> made the laws,<br />enforcedthem, <br />interpretedthem, <br />punishedthosewho<br />violatedthem<br />
    47. 47. PoliticalOrganization<br />Supremejudge and the <br />Supreme commander in <br /> times of war<br />
    48. 48. PoliticalOrganization<br />In return, the people:<br />servedtheirchieftainsduringwars and the latter’s voyages<br />helped till his land, buildhis house, and<br />paid tributes (buwis)<br />
    49. 49. Laws<br />oral and written<br />Umalahokan (datus)<br />Sumakwel Code (about 1250 BC)<br />Kalantiaw Code (1433)<br />
    50. 50. Punishments<br />slavery – laziness<br />death, slavery, heavy fines – insult, murder, arson, sacrilege, sorcery<br />exposure to ants, whipping or fines - singingat night, cheating in business, stealing<br />
    51. 51. Justice<br />Oral and writtenlaws<br />The Code of Kalantiaw<br /> a collection of lawsclaimed to bewritten by a datunamedKalatiaw in 1433.<br />
    52. 52. Society<br />Social Classes <br /> nobles<br />freemen<br />dependents<br />alipingsagigilid<br />alipingnamamahay<br />Social mobility - vertical<br />
    53. 53. Society<br />Women<br /> – equal standing<br />playedkeyroles in the family<br />
    54. 54. Society<br />Natural courtesy and politeness<br />removeputong (turban) for men of equalrank<br />use of po and opo<br />men alwayswalkbehindwomen<br />
    55. 55. Society<br />Marriage customs:<br />marriagewithin classes but canmarry slaves<br /> traditions: dowry (bigaykaya), <br />
    56. 56. Society<br />practice divorce based on:<br />adultery (wife)<br />desertion (husband)<br />loss of affection<br />cruelty<br />insanity<br />childlessness<br />
    57. 57. WeddingCeremonies<br />groom’sfriendfetch the bride<br />ceremonyatgroom’s house<br /> gifts weregiven in the course of the <br />joined hands over uncookedrice<br />threw the riceafterwards<br />
    58. 58. Burial and Mourning Customs<br />corpseembalmed and put insidebigwooden jars<br />relatives wear rattan bands<br />Do not eatmeat or drink wine<br />
    59. 59. Superstitions<br />Anting-anting<br />Gayuma<br />Adom<br />Uiga<br />
    60. 60. EconomicActivities<br />Jewelrymaking<br />Weaponsmaking<br />Textile industry<br />Manufacture of liquors and vinegar<br />
    61. 61. NamesGiven to our Country<br />Mai<br />Archipelago of St. Lazarus<br />Archipelago of Magellan<br />EmeraldIslands<br />Gems of the East<br />Isles of Faith<br />TreasureIslands of the Pacific<br />
    62. 62. Pearl of the Orient<br /><ul><li>a melting pot of many races and culture
    63. 63. the crossroads of Asian aviation, shipping and trade routes
    64. 64. one of democracy’sramparts in Asiaagainstcommunism
    65. 65. the only Christian Republic in the Far East</li></li></ul><li>References<br /><ul><li>http://www.pinoyprogress.com/showthread.php?t=502</li></ul>http://www.ayalamuseum.org/index.php?option=com_ayala_content&task=viewexhibitpage&id=14<br />