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Acids, bases, salts
Acids, bases, salts
Acids, bases, salts
Acids, bases, salts
Acids, bases, salts
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Acids, bases, salts


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  • 1. Acids, Bases, Salts<br />Notes<br />PropertyAcidsAlkalisDefinitionA substance that produces Hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in waterA metal oxide or metal hydroxide that produces is soluble in waterpH valueAbove 7Below 7Litmus paper effectTurns blue litmus paper redTurns red litmus paper blue<br />Acids<br />Strong acids (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) fully ionize in water to form H+ ions.HCl (aq) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />Weak acids (ethanoic acid: CH3COOH) only partially ionize in water to form H+ ions.CH3COOH (aq) CH3COO- (aq) + H+ (aq)<br />ReactionsChemical EquationsAcid + Base --> Salt + H20HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H20 (l)Acid + Metal --> Salt + H2 (g)H2SO4 (aq) + Zn (s) --> ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)Acid + Metal Oxide --> Salt + H20HNO3 (aq) + Mg0 (aq) ---> Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + H20 (l)Acid + Metal Carbonate --> Salt + C02 (g) + H20HCl (aq) + Cu(OH)2 (aq) --> CuCl2 + C02 (g) + H20 (l)<br />Alkalis<br />Strong alkalis (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, NH4OH) fully ionize in water to form OH- ions.NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />Weak alkalis (NH3) only partially ionize in water to form OH- ions.NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />ReactionsChemical EquationsAlkali + Acid --> Salt + H20NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H20 (l)Alkali + Ammonium salt --> Salt + NH3 (g) + H20 (l)NaOH (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) --> NaCl (aq) + NH3 (g) + H20 (l)Alkali + Metal salt (aq) --> Metal Hydroxide + another saltCa(OH)2 (aq) + KCl (aq) --> KOH (aq) + CaCl2 (aq)<br />Oxides<br />Basic OxideAmphotetic OxideAcidic OxidesNeutral OxidesMetal OxidesTransition metal OxidesNon-metal OxidesSome non-metal Oxides<br />Salts- Solubility<br />Soluble Insoluble Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-Cl-PbCl2, AgClSO42-BaSO4, CaSO4, PbSO4Na2CO3, K2CO3 ,(NH4)2CO3CO32-<br />Salts – Qualitative Analysis<br />CationNaOH(aq)Excess NaOH (aq)NH3 (aq)Excess NH3 (aq)Ca2+White pptInsolubleNo pptNo pptAl3+White pptDissolvesWhite pptInsolubleZn2+White pptDissolvesWhite pptDissolvesFe2+Green pptInsolubleGreen pptInsolubleFe3+Brown pptInsolubleBrown pptInsolublePb2+White pptDissolvesWhite pptInsolubleCu2+Blue pptInsolubleBlue pptDissolves, deep blue solutionNH4+No ppt<br />AnionTestObservationsCl-Add HNO3 and AgNO3White ppt (AgCl)I-Add HNO3 and AgNO3Yellow ppt (AgI)NO3-Add NaOH (aq), warm, add AlNH3(g) liberatedSO42-Add HNO3 and Ba(NO3)2White ppt (BaSO4)CO32-Add HCl (aq)CO2(g) liberated<br />GasTestH2Extinguishes a lighted splint with a ‘pop’ soundO2Relights a glowing splintCO2Forms white ppt with limewaterCl2Moist blue litmus turns red then whiteNH3Moist red litmus turns blueSO2Turns potassium dichromate green<br />Testing for H2O<br />Anhydrous CuSO4 (white) turns blue,Anhydrous CoCl2 (blue) turns pink.<br />Workout Questions<br /><ul><li>Element X burns in air to form an oxide that dissolves in both acids and alkalis. What is X likely to be?
  • 2. Carbon
  • 3. Potassium
  • 4. Zinc
  • 5. Calcium
  • 6. Bubbles are seen when which of the following is added to dilute sulphuric acid?
  • 7. NaOH (aq)
  • 8. Cu (s)
  • 9. MgO
  • 10. ZnCO3
  • 11. Which of the following is true of alkalis in aqueous solutions?
  • 12. They produce CO2 (g) when reacted with metal carbonates
  • 13. They produce a pungent gas when reacted with ammonium salts
  • 14. They produce bubbles when neutralized with acids
  • 15. They turn blue litmus paper red
  • 16. When Y dissolves in HNO3 (aq), the gas produced extinguished a lighted splint with a ‘pop’ sound. What could Y be?
  • 17. Hydrogen gas
  • 18. Carbon dioxide
  • 19. Zinc
  • 20. Copper
  • 21. When CaCo3 is added to aqueous HCl, which of the following takes place?
  • 22. A gas is produced that turns limewater chalky
  • 23. There is a white ppt produced
  • 24. A gas is liberated that relights a glowing splint
  • 25. The resulting solution turns red litmus paper blue
  • 26. Which compound will not neutralize acidic soils?
  • 27. Sodium carbonate
  • 28. Sodium chloride
  • 29. Sodium oxide
  • 30. Sodium hydroxide
  • 31. A sample of aqueous nitric acid has a pH value of 2. What could be a possible pH value after adding Potassium Iodide?
  • 32. 2
  • 33. 5
  • 34. 7
  • 35. 9
  • 36. When Ammonium Chloride is added to solution P, gas Q is liberated.
  • 37. Which is likely to be P and Q?
  • 38. PQa.Hydrochloric acidChlorine b.Calcium hydroxideCarbon dioxidec.Potassium hydroxideAmmonia d.Water Ammonia
  • 39. Which of the following will produce Copper(II) Sulphate when added to H2SO4?
  • 40. I. CopperII. Copper Oxide
  • 41. III. Copper CarbonateIV. Copper Hydroxide
  • 42. I only
  • 43. II and III only
  • 44. II, III and IV only
  • 45. All of the above
  • 46. Which of the following react to produce salt and water only?
  • 47. HCl and Ca(OH)2
  • 48. H2SO4 and MgCl2
  • 49. Ca(OH)2 and NH4Cl
  • 50. HCl and ZnCO3
  • 51. Barium carbonate is added to an excess of nitric acid.
  • 52. Write a balanced chemical equation with state symbols for this reaction
  • 53. What is observed?
  • 54. ________________________________________________________________________
  • 55. Write out balanced chemical equations with state symbols for the following reactions. Describe any expected observations and briefly outline tests for any gases formed.
  • 56. Calcium hydroxide and ammonium sulphate
  • 57. Hydrochloric acid and copper
  • 58. Sulphuric acid and iron (III) carbonate
  • 59. Phosphoric acid and aluminium oxide