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Student and teacher perspectives

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  • Research looked at teacher and student perspectives, beliefs, knowledge, and thinking. Included students at every grade level. Both inservice and preservice teachers.
  • This section of the paper is divided into two parts. The first focuses on students’ perceptions of the “good teacher” because students’ decisions about whether to cooperate are often based on their respect for the teacher. The next part considers the students’ perceptions of the frequency, efficacy and acceptability of various disciplinary interventions. Research shows that students are not passive recipients of teacher actions. They chose to resist or comply; make decisions to ignore, avoid, sabotage, question teachers’ requests. Students’ actions are purposive based on their interpretations of school and classroom life and their relationships with teachers.
  • Studies show the importance that students place on teachers’ willingness to “be there” for them, to listen and to show concern for students’ personal and academic lives. Studies show that “good” teachers (in students’ opinions) are able to maintain order, provide limits for behavior, and create an environment in which students feel safe. Studies also show that students appreciate a teacher who has the ability to develop and implement engaging, varied lessons.
  • Researchers speculate that teachers’ use of relationship strategies (rewards and recognitions, discussions, involvement and nondirective hints) promoted greater levels of student responsibility. Teachers used “coercive discipline” in classes with more misbehavior and more relationship-based discipline in classrooms where students acted more responsibly. It is important for teachers to be able to achieve order without resorting to shaming a student or public humiliation. Public reprimands of the individual and negative consequences for the group when only one child misbehaved are judged to be unacceptable interventions. Students support differential treatment in some cases realizing that different students have different needs.
  • Teachers’ prior experiences influence their teaching and classroom management. Prospective teachers come to college experts in being schooled; implicit models of what it means to teach, manage, and learn are inferred from thousands hours of schooling. Formal teacher education courses are seen as the least powerful influence on teachers’ beliefs. Teachers’ beliefs lead to teachers’ actions that impact students’ learning. It was also noted that teachers’ beliefs about teaching and management are not always consistent. Many educators who stress “understanding” and “critical thinking” are apt to advocate classroom management techniques that stress student compliance.
  • Most successful teachers view class management as the creation of effective, engaging, supportive learning environments and the socialization of students, whereas less successful teachers see management as discipline and the maintenance of authority.
  • Teachers who have a more custodial orientation tend to be more external in their locus of control, more authoritative and dogmatic in their beliefs, more likely to support corporal punishment, more directive, and less progressive in their educational attitudes. Teachers who favor a whole language approach to reading tend to be more humanistic whereas those favoring a phonics approach are more custodial. Greater teacher custodialism is significantly related to teacher stress and burnout.
  • One study found that the amount of time needed to plan and implement behavioral interventions significantly influenced the acceptability of classroom management techniques. Positive interventions (praise, tokens, rewards, etc) are seen as more acceptable than negative (time out, loss of privilege, etc) Punishment and control-oriented strategies are seen as appropriate for hostile-aggressive, disruptive and defiant students whereas sympathetic, help-oriented strategies were suggested for shy, anxious, rejected, or low-achieving students.
  • A number of researchers have studied teachers’ beliefs about the reasons for student misbehavior. Adler’s research found that the central motivation for all people is to be accepted by the peer group. Dreikurs wrote that children’s misbehaviors are purposeful attempts to achieve social recognition. McCaslin and Good found six possible reasons for misbehavior. Thus the range of possibilities is great. When the teacher assumes that student failure is attributable to forces beyond the students’ control, they tend to respond with sympathy and to avoid giving punishments.
  • Teacher efficacy defined as the extent to which the teacher believes he or she has the capacity to affect student performance.
  • High efficacy related to willingness to implement innovations, decreased teacher stress, less negative affect in teaching and teachers’ willingness to stay in the field. (Novice teachers): Research shows that teachers need to understand the ways that positive interpersonal relationships and engaging, well-orchestrated lessons contribute to order. Teachers need to appreciate that caring can be enacted by teaching well and by creating safe, orderly classrooms.
  • The authors noted that they found very few studies that examined both students’ and teachers’ perspectives in the same study. The research shows clear divergences in many areas, but some similarities as well.
  • Students seek choices in their schoolwork and respect, affection, trust, a listening ear, patience and humor in their relationships with teachers. Students look for teachers who are caring yet provide limits, who have high behavioral and academic expectations. Teachers look for respect for authority (particularly their authority), cooperation, and compliance with school and classroom rules and procedures.
  • 1. Students indicate a desire for caring teachers and particularly value personal caring . 1. Teachers are more likely to ignore personal relations. Teachers may communicate more caring to successful students. 2. Students respect teachers who set fair rules, use humor and a light touch to get students back on track and who do not publicly reprimand or embarrass them. 2. When teachers assume that students’ misbehavior is attributable to forces beyond the students’ control, they tend to respond with sympathy and to avoid giving punishments. 2. If the failures are attributed to a controllable factor, such as lack of effort, the teachers’ response is more likely to be anger, retribution, and punishment.
  • Problem with these contrasting views is the possibility of downward spiral of mistrust. Students withhold cooperation until teachers “earn it” with their authentic caring. Teachers withhold caring until students “earn it” with respect for authority and cooperation.
  • Research demonstrates link between positive student-teacher relationships and students’ motivation to become engaged with academic activities. The goal of classroom management is to create an environment in which students behave appropriately, not out of fear of punishment or desire for reward, but out of a sense of personal responsibility, respect, and regard for the group. There is a need for systematic inquiry into how teachers establish and maintain positive, caring relationships with students, foster autonomy and self-regulation, and build community. The authors say: We occasionally hear teachers emphasize the instructional aspects of their role and downplay the interpersonal. Their refrain usually goes like this: “I’m not here to win a popularity contest, I’m here to teach. If kids don’t like me, that’s just too bad.” The research on students’ views of classroom management suggests that attitudes like that underestimate the power of gaining students’ respect and affection.

Student and teacher perspectives Student and teacher perspectives Presentation Transcript

  • Student and Teacher Perspectives on Classroom Management by Anita Woolfolk Hoy Carol S. Weinstein Michele M. Thelen TTE 529
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
    • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Conclusions
    • Implications for Practice and for Future Research
  • Introduction
    • Both students and teachers have strong beliefs about what it takes to be an effective manager.
    • Fully understanding their differing perspectives should allow us to create better learning environments for both students and teachers.
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
    • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Conclusions
    • Implications for Practice and for Future Research
  • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
    • The “Good Teacher”
      • Establishes caring relationships with students
      • Exercises authority without being rigid, threatening or punitive
      • Knows how to “make learning fun”
  • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
      • Disciplinary Interventions
      • Coercive versus directive strategies
      • Severity and acceptability of disciplinary interventions
      • Differential treatment, justice, and fairness
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
    • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Conclusions
    • Implications for Practice and for Future Research
  • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Orientations to management
    • Perceived value of different management strategies
    • Reasons and attributions for student misbehavior
    • Beliefs about self: self-efficacy for classroom management
  • Orientations to Management
    • Custodial Perspective
      • an inflexible and highly regimented setting concerned primarily with the maintenance of order
    • Humanistic Perspective
      • an educational community in which students learn through cooperative interaction and experience
      • self-discipline is substituted for strict teacher control
  • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Orientations to management
    • Perceived value of different management strategies
    • Reasons and attributions for student misbehavior
    • Beliefs about self: self-efficacy for classroom management
  • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Orientations to management
    • Perceived value of different management strategies
    • Reasons and attributions for student misbehavior
    • Beliefs about self: self-efficacy for classroom management
  • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Orientations to management
    • Perceived value of different management strategies
    • Reasons and attributions for student misbehavior
    • Beliefs about self: self-efficacy for classroom management
  • Beliefs about Self: Self-Efficacy for Classroom Management
    • Sense of efficacy and classroom management
      • Consistently related to student achievement
      • Higher motivation, greater effort, persistence and resilience across the span of a teaching career
    • Novice teachers
      • Unrealistic optimism that can interfere with ability to accurately judge own effectiveness
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
    • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Conclusions
    • Implications for Practice and for Future Research
  • Conclusions
    • Concerns and focus
      • Students believe that good teachers care
      • Teachers more focused on order and academic concerns
    • Desired relationships
      • Students want choices & caring teachers
      • Teachers look for respect for authority and compliance
  • Conclusions
    • Individual and developmental needs
      • Students want caring teachers
      • Teachers focus on improving behavior and academic performance
    • Key distinctions
      • Students want fair rules, humor and a light touch
      • Teachers make distinctions between the causes and intentions of student behaviors
  • Conclusions
    • What is good classroom management?
      • Students want a fair and reasonable system that protects and respects students.
      • Students value choices and chances for responsibilities.
      • Teachers believe students need to earn their respect, relationship, concern and interest.
  • Content
    • Introduction
    • Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Management
    • Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs About Classroom Management
    • Conclusions
    • Implications for Practice and for Future Research