Synthesis, Decomposition Single & Double Displacement Complete & Incomplete Combustion Types of Reaction
1. Synthesis  (the hook-up) element + element    compound
1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
Mg(s) + O 2 (g)    MgO(s)
1. Synthesis (the hook-up) Metal + Nonmetal    Ionic compound Hydrogen + Nonmetal    Simple acid Nonmetal + Nonmetal   ...
1. Synthesis (the hook-up) <ul><li>Example 1: Predict the products when calcium reacts with nitrogen gas </li></ul><ul><li...
2. Decomposition (the break-up) compound    element + element
2. Decomposition (the break-up)
2. Decomposition (the break-up)
 
2. Decomposition (the break-up) Ionic compound    Metal + Nonmetal Molecular compound    products may be unpredictable
2. Decomposition (the break-up) <ul><li>Example 2: Predict the products when lithium chloride decomposes. </li></ul><ul><l...
3. Single Displacement (cheater) One element knocks out (“displaces”) another element in a compound
3. Single Displacement (cheater) Nonmetals swapped (females)
3. Single Displacement (cheater) 2CaO  + I 2      2CaI 2  +  O 2
3. Single Displacement (cheater) Metals swapped (males) AB  + Y     YB +  A
3. Single Displacement (cheater)
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)    MgCl(s) + H 2 (g)
3. Single Displacement (cheater) Rule: only ions of the same type can switch Metal replaces a metal, nonmetal replaces a n...
3. Single Displacement (cheater) <ul><li>Example 3: Predict the products when sodium nitrate reacts with aluminum </li></u...
3. Single Displacement (cheater) <ul><li>Example 4: Predict the products when beryllium fluoride reacts with sulfur gas </...
4. Double Displacement (the swap) Two aqueous ionic compounds switch places with each other
4. Double Displacement (the swap) AB + XY    AY + XB
4. Double Displacement (the swap)
2KI+ Pb(NO 3 ) 2   ->  PbI 2  + 2K(NO 3 )
4. Double Displacement (the swap) <ul><li>Example 5: Predict the products when magnesium sulfate reacts with potassium iod...
4. Double Displacement (the swap) <ul><li>Example 6: Predict the products when Lead (II) nitrate reacts with ammonium phos...
5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion reactions occur whenever oxygen is a reactant. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is also released ...
5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion reactions are further divided into these categories based on the substance being burned: ...
5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion of Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Metal + oxygen gas    metal oxide </li></ul><ul><li>2Mg + O2...
5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion of Nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetal + oxygen    nonmetal oxide </li></ul><ul><li>C +...
5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion of Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas    ?? </li></ul><ul><li>There...
<ul><li>This occurs when all the carbons in the hydrocarbon is fully reacted with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. </li></ul...
5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons  C x H y  + O 2     CO 2  + H 2 O
5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons  CH 4  + O 2     CO 2  + H 2 O
5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons  <ul><li>Occurs when not all of the carbons are fully reacted with oxygen  </li>...
5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons  5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas    ...
Writing Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Given the reactants, predict the products and  classify the type of reaction </li></ul>...
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Types of Chemical Reactions

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Types of Chemical Reactions

  1. 1. Synthesis, Decomposition Single & Double Displacement Complete & Incomplete Combustion Types of Reaction
  2. 2. 1. Synthesis (the hook-up) element + element  compound
  3. 3. 1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
  4. 4. 1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
  5. 5. Mg(s) + O 2 (g)  MgO(s)
  6. 6. 1. Synthesis (the hook-up) Metal + Nonmetal  Ionic compound Hydrogen + Nonmetal  Simple acid Nonmetal + Nonmetal  Molecular compound
  7. 7. 1. Synthesis (the hook-up) <ul><li>Example 1: Predict the products when calcium reacts with nitrogen gas </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of reactants: </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of products: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced chemical equation (add states): </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Decomposition (the break-up) compound  element + element
  9. 9. 2. Decomposition (the break-up)
  10. 10. 2. Decomposition (the break-up)
  11. 12. 2. Decomposition (the break-up) Ionic compound  Metal + Nonmetal Molecular compound  products may be unpredictable
  12. 13. 2. Decomposition (the break-up) <ul><li>Example 2: Predict the products when lithium chloride decomposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of reactants: </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of products: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced chemical equation (add states): </li></ul>
  13. 14. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) One element knocks out (“displaces”) another element in a compound
  14. 15. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) Nonmetals swapped (females)
  15. 16. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) 2CaO + I 2  2CaI 2 + O 2
  16. 17. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) Metals swapped (males) AB + Y  YB + A
  17. 18. 3. Single Displacement (cheater)
  18. 19. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl(s) + H 2 (g)
  19. 20. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) Rule: only ions of the same type can switch Metal replaces a metal, nonmetal replaces a nonmetal
  20. 21. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) <ul><li>Example 3: Predict the products when sodium nitrate reacts with aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of reactants: </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of products: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced chemical equation (add states): </li></ul>
  21. 22. 3. Single Displacement (cheater) <ul><li>Example 4: Predict the products when beryllium fluoride reacts with sulfur gas </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of reactants: </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of products: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced chemical equation (add states): </li></ul>
  22. 23. 4. Double Displacement (the swap) Two aqueous ionic compounds switch places with each other
  23. 24. 4. Double Displacement (the swap) AB + XY  AY + XB
  24. 25. 4. Double Displacement (the swap)
  25. 26. 2KI+ Pb(NO 3 ) 2 -> PbI 2 + 2K(NO 3 )
  26. 27. 4. Double Displacement (the swap) <ul><li>Example 5: Predict the products when magnesium sulfate reacts with potassium iodide </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of reactants: </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of products: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced chemical equation (add states): </li></ul>
  27. 28. 4. Double Displacement (the swap) <ul><li>Example 6: Predict the products when Lead (II) nitrate reacts with ammonium phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of reactants: </li></ul><ul><li>Formula of products: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced chemical equation (add states): </li></ul>
  28. 29. 5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion reactions occur whenever oxygen is a reactant. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is also released in the form of heat or light. </li></ul>
  29. 30. 5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion reactions are further divided into these categories based on the substance being burned: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetal combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. 5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion of Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Metal + oxygen gas  metal oxide </li></ul><ul><li>2Mg + O2  2MgO </li></ul>
  31. 32. 5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion of Nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetal + oxygen  nonmetal oxide </li></ul><ul><li>C + O2  CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>These are also classified as synthesis reactions. </li></ul>
  32. 33. 5. Combustion <ul><li>Combustion of Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas  ?? </li></ul><ul><li>There 2 possible results depending on whether it is complete or incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>See next slides for more information </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>This occurs when all the carbons in the hydrocarbon is fully reacted with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas  carbon dioxide + water </li></ul>5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons
  34. 35. 5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons C x H y + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O
  35. 36. 5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons CH 4 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O
  36. 37. 5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Occurs when not all of the carbons are fully reacted with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Results in carbon products that are connected to fewer than 2 oxygen atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon with 1 oxygen = carbon monoxide (clear colourless poisonous gas that kills by suffocation because your body thinks it is oxygen gas O2) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon with no oxygen = carbon (e.g. coal or the black soot left in a fire pit and a BBQ) </li></ul>
  37. 38. 5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons 5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas  water carbon dioxide + carbon monoxide + carbon </li></ul>C x H y + O 2  H 2 O + CO 2 + CO + C
  38. 39. Writing Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Given the reactants, predict the products and classify the type of reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Write the chemical formulas for compounds in the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of diatomic molecules, multivalents ions and polyatomics </li></ul><ul><li>Include the states of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Balance the equation </li></ul>
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