Types of Chemical Reactions
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Types of Chemical Reactions

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Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions Presentation Transcript

  • Synthesis, Decomposition Single & Double Displacement Complete & Incomplete Combustion Types of Reaction
  • 1. Synthesis (the hook-up) element + element  compound
  • 1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
  • 1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
  • Mg(s) + O 2 (g)  MgO(s)
  • 1. Synthesis (the hook-up) Metal + Nonmetal  Ionic compound Hydrogen + Nonmetal  Simple acid Nonmetal + Nonmetal  Molecular compound
  • 1. Synthesis (the hook-up)
    • Example 1: Predict the products when calcium reacts with nitrogen gas
    • Formula of reactants:
    • Formula of products:
    • Balanced chemical equation (add states):
  • 2. Decomposition (the break-up) compound  element + element
  • 2. Decomposition (the break-up)
  • 2. Decomposition (the break-up)
  •  
  • 2. Decomposition (the break-up) Ionic compound  Metal + Nonmetal Molecular compound  products may be unpredictable
  • 2. Decomposition (the break-up)
    • Example 2: Predict the products when lithium chloride decomposes.
    • Formula of reactants:
    • Formula of products:
    • Balanced chemical equation (add states):
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater) One element knocks out (“displaces”) another element in a compound
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater) Nonmetals swapped (females)
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater) 2CaO + I 2  2CaI 2 + O 2
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater) Metals swapped (males) AB + Y  YB + A
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater)
  • Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl(s) + H 2 (g)
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater) Rule: only ions of the same type can switch Metal replaces a metal, nonmetal replaces a nonmetal
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater)
    • Example 3: Predict the products when sodium nitrate reacts with aluminum
    • Formula of reactants:
    • Formula of products:
    • Balanced chemical equation (add states):
  • 3. Single Displacement (cheater)
    • Example 4: Predict the products when beryllium fluoride reacts with sulfur gas
    • Formula of reactants:
    • Formula of products:
    • Balanced chemical equation (add states):
  • 4. Double Displacement (the swap) Two aqueous ionic compounds switch places with each other
  • 4. Double Displacement (the swap) AB + XY  AY + XB
  • 4. Double Displacement (the swap)
  • 2KI+ Pb(NO 3 ) 2 -> PbI 2 + 2K(NO 3 )
  • 4. Double Displacement (the swap)
    • Example 5: Predict the products when magnesium sulfate reacts with potassium iodide
    • Formula of reactants:
    • Formula of products:
    • Balanced chemical equation (add states):
  • 4. Double Displacement (the swap)
    • Example 6: Predict the products when Lead (II) nitrate reacts with ammonium phosphate
    • Formula of reactants:
    • Formula of products:
    • Balanced chemical equation (add states):
  • 5. Combustion
    • Combustion reactions occur whenever oxygen is a reactant.
    • Energy is also released in the form of heat or light.
  • 5. Combustion
    • Combustion reactions are further divided into these categories based on the substance being burned:
      • Metal combustion
      • Nonmetal combustion
      • Hydrocarbon combustion
        • Complete
        • Incomplete
  • 5. Combustion
    • Combustion of Metals
    • Metal + oxygen gas  metal oxide
    • 2Mg + O2  2MgO
  • 5. Combustion
    • Combustion of Nonmetals
    • Nonmetal + oxygen  nonmetal oxide
    • C + O2  CO2
    • These are also classified as synthesis reactions.
  • 5. Combustion
    • Combustion of Hydrocarbons
    • Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas  ??
    • There 2 possible results depending on whether it is complete or incomplete
    • See next slides for more information
    • This occurs when all the carbons in the hydrocarbon is fully reacted with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
    • Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas  carbon dioxide + water
    5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons
  • 5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons C x H y + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O
  • 5a. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons CH 4 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O
  • 5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons
    • Occurs when not all of the carbons are fully reacted with oxygen
    • Results in carbon products that are connected to fewer than 2 oxygen atoms
    • Examples:
    • Carbon with 1 oxygen = carbon monoxide (clear colourless poisonous gas that kills by suffocation because your body thinks it is oxygen gas O2)
    • Carbon with no oxygen = carbon (e.g. coal or the black soot left in a fire pit and a BBQ)
  • 5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons 5b. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons
    • Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas  water carbon dioxide + carbon monoxide + carbon
    C x H y + O 2  H 2 O + CO 2 + CO + C
  • Writing Chemical Reactions
    • Given the reactants, predict the products and classify the type of reaction
    • Write the chemical formulas for compounds in the reaction
    • Be aware of diatomic molecules, multivalents ions and polyatomics
    • Include the states of matter
    • Balance the equation