Respiratory system


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Respiratory system

  1. 1. Respiratory Tract Gas Exchange Breathing Disease Respiratory System
  2. 2. Respiratory Tract <ul><li>Nasal (or oral) cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchiole </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nasal Cavity <ul><li>3 main functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Cleans the air – nostrils contain tiny hairs that trap dirt particles </li></ul><ul><li>Warms the air – capillaries carrying warm blood </li></ul><ul><li>Moistens the air – membranes that secretes mucus </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pharynx (throat) <ul><li>The place where the nasal cavity, esophagus (digestive tract) and trachea (respiratory tract) meet </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis is the door that allows food down to go down the esophagus (digestive tract) and air down the trachea (respiratory tract) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Larynx (voice box) <ul><li>Houses the vocal cords </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrations of the cords produces sound </li></ul>
  6. 6. Larynx (voice box)
  7. 7. Trachea (windpipe) <ul><li>Composed of cartilage (soft bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintains rigidity to prevent the respiratory passage from collapsing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Trachea (windpipe) <ul><li>Lined with ciliated epithelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells secrete mucus which traps foreign particles </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia brush the mucus up the respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>We sneeze or cough to expel mucus that has trapped foreign particles </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bronchi <ul><li>The trachea branches into 2 bronchi leading to the left and right lung </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi branch into smaller bronchiole eventually ending at the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Structures are reinforced with cartilage </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alveoli <ul><li>Spherical hollow cavities increase surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Walls are only 1 cell thick making it easy for rapid diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries line the alveoli for gas exchange </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gas Exchange
  12. 12. Gas Exchange Alveoli : Oxygen goes into the blood vessel. Carbon dioxide (a waste product) leaves the blood vessel into the alveolus.
  13. 13. Breathing <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation: taking air into the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Exhalation: breathing out air </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm (between lung and stomach) </li></ul><ul><li>Ribcage muscles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Breathing
  15. 15. Breathing Increase Decrease Internal Pressure Moves out Moves in Air Decrease Increase Volume Relax (moves up) Dome-shaped Contract (moves down) Flattens Diaphragm Relax Contract Rib Muscles Reduce (down and in) Exhalation Expand (up and out) Inhalation Rib Cage Process
  16. 16. Breathing <ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Can override system temporarily (e.g. hold our breath) </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing rate determined by amount of carbon dioxide detected in blood </li></ul><ul><li>When carbon dioxide increases, breathing rate increases, heart beats faster to let in more oxygen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Respiratory Diseases <ul><li>Laryngitis </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Turberculosis (TB) </li></ul><ul><li>SARS </li></ul>
  18. 18. Laryngitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the vocal cords. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by overuse, irritation, infection </li></ul>
  19. 19. Laryngitis <ul><li>Left: inflamed larynx (v-shaped flaps) </li></ul><ul><li>Right: thickening of vocal cords in response to chronic irritation (white, centre) </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen vocal cords lose ability to vibrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Voice becomes husky or is lost completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: rest, remain in warm moist environment </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bronchitis <ul><li>Inflammation of bronchi. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microorganisms: virus, b acteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: pollution, dust, smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irritation causes bronchi to swell. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bronchitis <ul><li>Cilia immobilized </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory passage clog with debris </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy mucus formed resulting in a cough </li></ul>
  22. 22. Asthma <ul><li>Chronic, inflammatory disease resulting in obstructed airflow. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation and swelling of bronchiole walls produces extra mucus </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction of muscles around bronchiole </li></ul>
  23. 23. Asthma
  24. 24. Asthma <ul><li>Allergies and air pollution can trigger asthma. </li></ul><ul><li>Condition is usually reversible </li></ul><ul><li>Short term treatment: puffers that contain bronchiodilators </li></ul><ul><li>Long term treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-allergy shots </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pneumonia <ul><li>Infection of the lungs, leading to fluid in the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a microorganism </li></ul><ul><li>Treated with antibiotics </li></ul>
  26. 26. Smoking <ul><li>Injures the cilia of the trachea so that they cannot remove foreign particles as effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Tar, a black sticky sooty material, a by-product of burning tobacco, coats the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Key cause of lung cancer. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Emphysema <ul><li>Alveoli become brittle </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli walls fuse together </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the surface area for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Lung loses elasticity </li></ul>
  28. 28. Emphysema
  29. 29. Emphysema
  30. 30. Tuberculosis (TB) <ul><li>Infectious disease caused by a bacteria that grows in the lung </li></ul>Conceptual image of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis bacteria on a cellular surface
  31. 31. Tuberculosis (TB) <ul><li>Symptoms are general: fever, cough, chest pain, tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria can remain dormant in body for decades and can also recur in patients who have had TB before </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: chest x-ray, swab </li></ul>. Coloured X-ray (front view) of the chest in a 50 year old male patient, showing fibrosis in the lungs from old tuberculosis (orange, at upper left) and an infection of new tuberculosis (green, at right). TB can recur at periods when the patient's immune system is weakened.
  32. 32. Tuberculosis (TB) <ul><li>Chest x-ray of a 25 year old male patient with TB. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung (dark areas) show grainy white patches which are the affected areas. </li></ul>,_X-ray-SPL.jpg
  33. 33. Tuberculosis (TB) <ul><li>Chest x-ray (left: traditional, right: coloured) in a 14 year old male patient with TB </li></ul><ul><li>Inflamed lymph nodes (left: centre right, right: blue) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid collected between the lung lobes (left: pale line at left, right: yellow) </li></ul>
  34. 34. SARS <ul><li>Severe acute respiratory syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemic gripped Toronto in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Spread from a region in China </li></ul><ul><li>44 deaths in Canada of 438 cases </li></ul>
  35. 35. SARS Outbreak
  36. 36. SARS <ul><li>Symptoms: flu like, high fever, shortness of breath, dry cough, sore throat, headache, muscle pain, exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: chest x-ray, swab </li></ul>
  37. 37. SARS <ul><li>Fashion makes things less frightening. It is able to take the focus away from the potentially lethal infectious airborne disease. </li></ul><ul><li>These folks are all in Hong Kong where they were protecting themselves against the SARS epidemic. </li></ul>