Plant Biology - Systems
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  • 1. Systems: Roots and Shoots Plant Parts: root, stem, leaf, flowerPlant Biology Part 1 - Systems
  • 2. Plant Body SystemsTwo types of systems: Root System Shoot System: stem, leaf, flowerPlant organs: root, stem, leaf, flower referred to as plant parts
  • 3. Root System Function  Anchorage  Keeps plant in the soil  Prevents soil erosion  Holds stem in place  Absorption  water  dissolved minerals  Storage  Starch  Other nutrients
  • 4. Types of Roots http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/taproot_fibrousroot.jpghttp://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/2153/rootsystems1.jpghttp://tchefty.wikispaces.com/file/view/rootsystems1.jpg/260637884/rootsystems1.jpg
  • 5. Taproot Large long primary root Penetrate deep into the ground Small thin roots grow laterally off main root Strong anchoring system Examples: evergreen trees
  • 6. Taproot  Specialized to store water, food, nutrients  Better chance at drought survival  Examples: carrot, beet, turnip, radish http://www.ontarioweeds.com/media/jpg/tropr_root.jpg
  • 7. Fibrous Root  Many small roots that branch  Increases surface area  Better absorption of water and minerals  Less structural support  Examples: peas, beans, lettuce
  • 8. Root Hairs  Small fibrous objects that branch off roots  Absorbs water and minerals
  • 9. Root Zones  Zone of maturation: cells differentiate into different types of cells  Zone of elongation: allows the root to get deeper within the soil  Meristematic region: rapid mitosis of undifferentiated meristematic cells  Root cap: protects the meristematic region
  • 10. Shoot System Stem – structure and transport Leaf – photosynthesis Flower – reproduction
  • 11. Stem Raises and supports branches, leaves and flowers Transport of water and nutrients In trees the main stem is the tree trunk http://www.pxleyes.com/images/contests/bw%20tree%20trunks/fullsize/bw%20tree%20trunks_4b6283790291c.jpg
  • 12. Stem  Young green stems can perform photosynthesis because they have chloroplast in their epidermal cells
  • 13.  Some are specialized for food storageStem  Examples: sugar cane, potatoes http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Sugar_Cane.jpg
  • 14. 4 Types of Modified Stem Rhizome Stolon Tuber Bulb
  • 15. Modified Stem: Stolon  Grow on surface of ground horizontally  Enable plant to colonize large areas asexually from a single parent  Example: Strawberry runnershttp://strawberryplants.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/strawberry-plant-runners.jpg http://plant-passion.typepad.com/.a/6a00e551cf6c9a88330120a5344f62970b-pi
  • 16. Modified Stem: Rhizome Horizontal growth underground (an underground stolon) Example: Edible base of ginger plant http://nogmoseedbank.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/zingiberofficinale-thum.gif
  • 17. Modified Stem: Tuber  Swollen ends of rhizomes specialized for food storage  Example: potato, yam, taro, cassava, sweet potatoAdenia digitata is poisonous. The Tswanapeople of Botswana have used the fruit forhomicide. Accidental poisoning mainlyoccurs when the root of Adenia digitata ismistaken for edible tubers. To treat skinailment, leprosy or ulcers, the Nyanjapeople of Malawi and Zambia rub the skinwith boiled roots or a root decoction. http://database.prota.org/dbtw-wpd/protabase/Photfile%20Images/Adenia%20digitata%20tuber%20B.%20Wursten.jpg
  • 18. Modified Stem: Bulb  Vertical underground swollen base  Example: Onion bulbhttp://69.39.232.84/~ecofrien/oniongardening.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/02/harvestonions.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YTxeUV00GQI/TbFydVLx6WI/AAAAAAAAB7Q/_Ae2T2c1ico/s1600/spring_onionR.jpg
  • 19. Leaf Main function: Photosynthesis Parts of the Leaf:  Cuticle  Epidermis  Guard Cells & Stoma  Palisade cells  Spongy Layer  Vascular Tissue
  • 20. Epidermis  Outer layer of cells  Leaf epidermis produces cuticle http://www.goldiesroom.org/Multimedia/Bio_Images/05%20Nutrition/15a%20Cross%20Section%20of%20a%20Leaf.jpg
  • 21. Cuticle  Waxy substance that coats the exterior  Water proofing  Protect interior tissues  Blocks passage of gases http://www.goldiesroom.org/Multimedia/Bio_Images/05%20Nutrition/15a%20Cross%20Section%20of%20a%20Leaf.jpg
  • 22. Guard Cells & Stoma  Stoma (Greek for “mouth”)  Pore-like openings in the plant’s epidermis  Opening size controlled by two guard cells  permits gas exchange between the leaf’s interior and external environment.  larger opening, faster gas exchange
  • 23. Guard Cells & Stoma
  • 24. Spongy Layer Where water is stored Where the vascular tissues reside
  • 25. Palisade Cells Contains many chloroplast for photosynthesis Cells stand tall and upright  Top end exposed to light  Bottom end exposed to the gases in the spongy layer
  • 26. Chloroplast Structure  Thylakoids are flat disc-like structures where chlorophyll is embedded  Grana are thylakoids arranged in a stack  Chlorophyll is a pigment that captures light energy
  • 27. Chloroplast Function  Site for starch (a type of sugar) storage  Site for photosynthesis  Reaction involves trapping light energy to create food in the form of sugars  Starting substances are carbon dioxide and water CO2 + H2O + energy  O2 + glucose
  • 28. Leaf Cross Section  Scanning electron microscope image of a leaf from a Black Walnut tree. (Dartmouth Electron Microscope Facility/Dartmouth College) http://cache.boston.com/universal/site_graphics/blogs/bigpicture/micro_11_14/m04_walnut_leaf.jpg
  • 29. Modified Leaf: Cactus
  • 30. Poinsettia Leaves
  • 31. Flower Specialized structures developed for sexual reproduction known as pollination Can contain both male and female reproductive structures in the same flower
  • 32. Flower Parts  Male reproductive organ: stamen  Female reproductive organ: pistilhttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/teaching_aids/flower_parts_color72.jpg
  • 33. Flower Parts Male gametes: pollen grains found on anther Female gametes: ovule housed in ovary
  • 34. Pollination Act of sexual reproduction in plants Pollen reach stigma, travel down the style into the ovary to fertilize the ovule
  • 35. Methods of Pollination: Wind  Pollen grains blown by wind  Plants are often small and drab but produce a large amount of pollen  Example: grasshttp://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/images/pollen/pollen-grass-stigma.jpg
  • 36. Methods of Pollination: Wind All conifers are non- flowering Produce male and female pine cones Use wind to pollinate http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/17620/enlarge
  • 37. Methods of Pollination: Animals  Insects, birds, bats  Insects pollinate about 70% of all flowering plants  Crops pollinated by bees provide 30% of human food
  • 38. Attracting Pollinators  nectarhttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Xla0E3fwLto/S4CL_NstZuI/AAAAAAAABP4/PgoWyz-Mk2w/s400/4342259001_e10572466d_b.jpg
  • 39. Attracting Pollinators  Fragrant flowers (scent)  Big Pollen Loadhttp://guelph.ca/uploads/Healthy%20Landscapes/Pollination_Bee_Dandelion_Zoom.jpg
  • 40. Attracting Pollinators  Large Stigma
  • 41. Attracting Pollinators Large Petals
  • 42. Attracting Pollinators Bright colours
  • 43. Attracting Pollinators Pollen guides/indicator
  • 44. Pollination videos(BBC David Attenborough) Titan Arum’s scent (2:29) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHaWu2rcP94 Hoverfly and pollen guides (2:29) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MQlq5QtRI9o Orchid mimics female wasps (2:59) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-h8I3cqpgnA
  • 45. After Pollination Zygote (fertilized egg) becomes the seed Ovary becomes the fruit
  • 46. After Pollination Zygote (fertilized egg) becomes the seed Ovary becomes the fruit http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~plantbio/osu_pcmb/pcmb_lab_resources/images/pcmb101/flwrs_sds_frts/where_fruit.jpg
  • 47. After Pollination http://greatneck.k12.ny.us/gnps/shs/dept/science/krauz/bio_h/images/38_09FruitDevelopment_L.jpg