Neurological conditions


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Neurological conditions

  1. 1. Neurological Conditions Huntington’s Disease Parkinson’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Multiple Sclerosis Epilepsy
  2. 2. What is Huntington’s Disease? A fatal hereditary disorder where neurons degenerate Affects cognitive functions and muscle coordination
  3. 3. Causes of HD Autosomal dominant disorder Defect on chromosome 4 Abnormal HD gene has extra repeats  CAG repeats normally 10-28 imes  With Huntington’s, the repeat is 36-120 times Normal protein called Huntingtin  Abnormal protein product is larger  Toxic to brain cells but don’t know why (mechanism unknown)
  4. 4. Manifestation of HD More common in Western Europeans 70 times to 100 time greater chance for Caucasian First manifest: middle age (35-45) Death within 10-20 years of first symptoms As the gene is passed down through families, the number of repeats tend to get larger. The larger the number of repeats, the greater the chance of developing symptoms at an earlier age. Source:
  5. 5. Symptoms of HD Behavior changes may occur before movement problems  Hallucinations, moodiness, irritability, paranoia Abnormal / unusual movement:  Jerking, uncontrollable movements  Facial movements, including grimaces Dementia progresses:  Speech problems  Personality changes
  6. 6. Treatments for HD No cure No way to stop the degeneration Treatment aims to lessen severity of symptoms
  7. 7. What is Parkinson’s Disease? A progressive degenerative disorder of the CNS Recognized by a person’s impaired movement, speech and coordination of the body
  8. 8. Cause of PD Degeneration of the basal ganglia (brainstem) where dopamine-producing neurons are normally found. Dopamine: a chemical needed for voluntary movement, attention, learning, cognition, sleep and mood.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Symptoms of PD Low levels of dopamine leads to the inhibition of the neural pathways that are responsible for movement  Tremor  Muscle rigidity / stiffness, slow movements  Poor balance and coordination  Stooped posture
  11. 11. Manifestation of PD Age of onset: 60 years Prevalence: 1 in every 100 persons over 60
  12. 12. Treatment for PD Chronic disorder with no known cure Main goal of treatments is to control symptoms Living a healthy lifestyle is crucial to managing PD Temporary relief from medication: L-Dopa  increase dopamine levels in the brain  Severe side effects such as hallucination, nausea, vomiting
  13. 13. What is Alzheimer’s Disease? Progressive degenerative brain disease Neurons deteriorate Brain atrophy: lose mass
  14. 14. Brain components affected Cerebral cortex:  higher brain functions: thought, reasoning etc.  Motor skills  Ability to control the five senses  Ability to retain information & solve problems Hippocampus  formation of new memories (amnesia)
  15. 15. Brain components affected
  16. 16. Cortex
  17. 17. Hippocampus
  18. 18. VentriclesDue to large number of brain cell death, ventricles grow
  19. 19. Cause of AD Proteins (plaques and tangles) that somehow block communication among nerve cells Destruction and death of nerve cells Not enough acetylcholine Too much aluminum in the brain
  20. 20. Cause of AD: PlaquesA plaque is the build up of a protein in thespaces between nerve cells
  21. 21. Cause of AD: Tangles A tangle is a twisted strand of protein that form inside nerve cells
  22. 22. Manifestation of AD 75% are mostly women Early-Onset Alzheimer’s  under the age of 65  Usually mild conditions  Forgetfulness  Retains the ability to do tasks Alzheimer’s  above the age of 65  Early symptoms can be mistaken for old age
  23. 23. Symptoms of AD Difficulty forming new memories Disorientation Deepening confusion about events, time and place Mood and behavior changes Unfounded suspicions about family, friends and professional caregivers
  24. 24. Stages of AD Early Stage  Mild loss of memory  Forgetfulness  Changes in mood and behaviour  continue to live normal lives
  25. 25. Stages of AD Middle Stage  Decrease in cognitive and functional abilities  Large decrease in memory  Mood swings and erratic behaviour  caregiver needed to help with everyday tasks
  26. 26. Stages of AD Late stage  Lose control of most cognitive abilities  Need 24 hour care Started with the lost of memory and leads to death
  27. 27. Treatment for AD Current medication can not cure AD nor stop it from progressing but can lessens symptoms of memory loss and confusion
  28. 28. What is Multiple Sclerosis? Neurological disease affecting the CNS Axons become demyelinated  Axons are withered:  no transmission of electrical impulse  Replaced with scar tissue:  Multiple = many, sclerosis = scars  block formation of new myelin  slows down electrical impulse
  29. 29. Cause of MS Suspected to be an autoimmune disease  Immune system views myelin sheath as foreign and attacks.  Myelin sheath becomes inflamed and damaged.  Occurs in small patches over the CNS Other suspected theories  May be triggered by virus or bacteria  May be genetic although MS gene has not yet been found
  30. 30. Manifestation of MS Women are 2-3 times more likely to get MS than men. Affects Caucasians more than other races.
  31. 31. Symptoms of MS Unpredictable, affects each  Muscular: person in different ways  stiffness / spasms  Different symptoms  Numbness / weakness /  Varying severities fatigue  Depends on location of  Awkward gait / difficulty damage walking  Loss of coordination Body functions:  Uncontrollable tremors   Paralysis Bladder & bowel problems  Difficulty with swallowing  Cognitive:  Slurred speech  Mental health problems /  Hearing / vision loss depression   Memory problems Dizziness, headaches  Pain, seizures
  32. 32. Treatment for MS Treatment to reduce number of relapses / lessen severity (anti-inflammatory steroids) Medications to help manage symptoms Rehabilitation programs Reducing burden of symptoms:  Flu shot  Avoid stress  Avoid heat  Regular exercise, muscle-stretching exercise
  33. 33. What is Epilepsy? Recurring unprovoked seizures A neurological condition that occurs during an imbalance in the brain’s electrical signals Imbalance caused by a misfire of nerve cells and hyperactivity within the brain
  34. 34. Cause of Epilepsy can be genetically inherited, however exact pathology is uncertain, possible explanations include mutations which affect protein ion channels no discernable difference between the brain of a healthy individual and one with inherited epilepsy
  35. 35. Epilepsy DiagnosisMRI  Several tests need to been performed to confirm illness is epilepsy  Electroencephalography (EEG)  Brain imaging (CT, MRI, PET)  Blood tests  Developmental, neurological, and behavioral tests
  36. 36. Manifestation of Epilepsy Can occur at any age More likely to occur in children and seniors Elderly that have diseases have increased risk of epilepsy Epilepsy in adults generally result from brain lesions or brain tumours Seizures can be triggered by certain stimulants such as alcohol, flashing lights, hormone changes
  37. 37. Symptoms of Epilepsy Convulsions Muscle spasms Twitches Tics Muscle pain/tremors Loss of consciousness Strange sensations Continuous seizures
  38. 38. Treatment for Epilepsy No cure Treatment: Reducing the severity and frequency of seizures  Anticonvulsant medications  Surgery can be used to prevent severity of seizure  Corpus callosotomy  Vagus Nerve Stimulation  Warning systems