Ms. He's Stem cells


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  • (7:52) (19:31)
  • Inner cells will become a human being/ embryo. These inner cells haven’t decide what they will become. these cells might become nerve cells, these might become muscle cells… THESE ARE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS – has potential to become any type of cells other than placenta
  • Protected in zona pellucida Hatch and implanted into uterus
  • Hatch from the sac called zona pellucida implantation in the uterus
  • What does ecto mean…. What type of cells do you think it will become?
  • Multi – already differentiate into family
  • Ms. He's Stem cells

    1. 1. Undifferentiated Cells Embryogenesis Stem Cells
    2. 2. Embryogenesis• The formation of an embryo• The development a new individual from a zygote
    3. 3. Embryogenesis Summary Hatching & Implantation Fertilization Cleavage Blastulation GastrulationGerm Zygote Morula Blastula Blastocyst Gastrulacells
    4. 4. EmbryogenesisFerlization Mitosis -Tight junction - Solid mass -Outcome of mitosis of cells -2n Blastulation blastocyst -Hollow mass of cells
    5. 5. Embryogenesis: Fertilization• Germ cells / sex cells: – sperm, ovum – Haploid (1 copy of each chromosome, half the genetic information)• Zygote: fertilized egg – Diploid (2 copies of each chromosome)
    6. 6. Blastocyst• Differentiation begins in the blastocyst• Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo and some extraembryonic tissue• (Outer) Trophoplast: becomes the placenta
    7. 7. Zona pellucida
    8. 8. Embryogenesis
    9. 9. Embryogenesis: Gastrulation• Gastrula is composed of 3 germ layers: – Outer: Ectoderm – Middle: Mesoderm – Inner: Endoderm
    10. 10. Embryogenesis: Gastrulation3 germ layers will eventually differentiate into• Ectoderm: epidermis, nervous system• Mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood, urinary tract• Endoderm: GI tract, lungs
    11. 11. Video: The first 9 weeks of pregnancy
    12. 12. Embryogenesis Summarized Hatching & Implantation Fertilization Cleavage Blastulation GastrulationGerm Zygote Morula Blastula Blastocyst Gastrulacells Totipotent Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC)
    13. 13. Stem cell division. A – stem cells Stem Cells B – progenitor cell C – differentiated cell• Unspecialized / undifferentiated cell• Has the potential of becoming a specialized cell with a specific function• Property of self-renew for long periods of time (immortal)• Formed during the development of the embryo
    14. 14. Types of Stem Cells• Embryonic stem cells – Stem cells taken from the pre-implantation stage of the embryo – Totipotent or pluripotent• Somatic / Tissue / Adult stem cells – Exist within specialized tissue – Able to differentiate into certain types of cells – Multipotent
    15. 15. Proliferative Potential: Potency • A cell’s potential to differentiate • Levels of potency: – Totipotent – Pluripotent – Multipotent – Unipotent – Terminally differentiated
    16. 16. Totipotent• Capable of giving rise to any and all cell types – Somatic cells – Germ cells – Placenta• Can form a whole organism / embryo• Totipotent cells: zygote, morula
    17. 17. Pluripotent• Capable of giving rise to many cell types – Somatic cells – Germ cells• Can not develop into an organism because incapable of producing extraembryonic tissue – placenta• Pluripotent cells: blastocyst (inner cell mass)
    18. 18. Multipotent• Also known as progenitor cells• Can give rise to multiple, but limited number of lineages• Committed to produce specific cell types and thus specialization potential is limited to one or more cell lines• Adult / tissue stem cells: found in the tissues of adult mammals
    19. 19. Unipotent• Capable of differentiating into one cell type
    20. 20. Terminally Differentiated • Cells that are unable to divide • Example: neurons, adipocyte, cardiomyocyte, skeletal muscle cells, skin cells Stem cell division. A – stem cells; B – progenitor cell; C – differentiated cell; 1 – symmetric stem cell division; 2 – asymmetric stem cell division; 3 – progenitor division; 4 – terminal differentiation