Cardiovascular Diseases• Atherosclerosis leading to: – Coronary Artery Disease – Heart attack – Stroke – Hypertension• Arrhythmias• Heart Murmurs
Introduction to Atherosclerosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0NF2ODfd9Ehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TAFuOGXem8&feature=fvwrel
Atherosclerosis• Thickening of artery wall due to buildup of plaque in the wall• Plaque is mainly made up of fat, cholesterol, blood clotting materials What is the function of Artery?
Formation of Plaque• At the site of tear in artery wall
Atherosclerosis: Hardening of Artery• Plaque limits the elasticity of the artery wall Why is it important for artery to have elastic wall? What happens when artery loss its elasticity?• Narrow artery• Higher the arterial pressure -> causes hypertension
Arteriosclerosis-Related Diseases• Coronary Artery Disease Affected artery that supply blood to heart• Heart Attack• Stroke Affecrtery that supply blood to brain
Coronary Artery• Artery around the heart• Coronary arteries transport blood from heart TO heart muscle cells Why is it important to circulate blood to heart cells through coronary artery?
Atherosclerosis: Heart Attack • Rupture of plaque result in blood clot Which blood cell is responsible for blood clot? Blood Clot • Heart attack is the result of blockedBuildup of Plaque blood flow in coronary artery • Lack of oxygen flow to heart muscle cells What will happen to the heart muscle cells?
Heart Attack What type blood is transported through coronary artery? • Death of cardiac muscle cells due to lack of oxygen • Heart may stop pumping
Stroke• “Brain attack”• Lack of oxygen flow to brain• Blocked or bursted arteries that transport blood to brain
Types of Atherosclerosis Affected Artery Blood flowCoronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery ReducedHeart Attack Coronary Artery BlockedStroke Artery that transfer blood Blocked to brain
Hypertension • Prolonged high blood pressure • Often due to narrowing of arteries from plaque buildup • Heart is constantly pumping harder • Overuse leads to thickening of heart muscles making them less flexible and more inefficient at pumping
Atherosclerosis TreatmentsCORONARY BYPASS
Atherosclerosis TreatmentsANGIOPLASTY and STENThttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9AqBd4RExk&feature=related
Arrhythmia • Irregular heart beats • Arises from problems with the electrical activity of the heart
Electrocardiographs (ECGs) • The electrical signals of the heart can be measured using a machine called an electrocardiograph (ECG).
Arrhythmia Treatment• Treatment may include implanting an artificial pacemaker• Pacemaker controls heart beats using electrical impulses
Heart Murmurs• heart makes extra sounds due to leaking valves