Ms He's Cell cycle

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Ms He's Cell cycle

  1. 1. http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html
  2. 2. InterphaseMitosis
  3. 3.  Scientists have identified a repeating cycle of events in the life of a cell This cycle of events is called the cell cycle
  4. 4. Every hour, about one billion (109) cells die andone billion cells are made in your body. Part ofthe cell cycle includes making new cells in aprocess called cell division.
  5. 5.  The cell cycle has four phases:  G1 Phase  S Phase  G2 Phase  M Phase Interphase
  6. 6.  The cell spends about 90% of its time in interphase
  7. 7.  Composed of 3 phases: G1, S, G2 Often called the “resting” phase but cell is not at rest Cell is not dividing Cell is active:  taking in nutrients  Growing  conducting other normal cell functions http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/interphase1_pc.jpg
  8. 8.  Chromosomes are stored in the nucleus
  9. 9.  Genetic information is stored on chromosomes The coded information on chromosomes is called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  10. 10.  Chromosomes are long pieces of coiled DNA and proteins
  11. 11.  When the cell is not dividing, chromosomes are unwound and not visible DNA and proteins are spread throughout the nucleus This unwound form of chromosomes is called chromatin
  12. 12.  At the beginning of cell division, chromosomes condense into visible structures Chromosomes are only visible when the cell is dividing
  13. 13.  Chromosomes that have duplicated will have two sister chromatids attached to the same centromere Sister chromatids have identical genetic information
  14. 14.  Chromosomes duplicate during S phaseWhy do chromosomesduplicate?
  15. 15.  Period of rapid growth New proteins and organelles are produced Chromosomes are unwound (chromatin) Preparing for DNA synthesis (S phase)
  16. 16.  Cell leaves cell cycle Can be temporary or permanent But not necessarily dead Example: neurons
  17. 17.  Where a cell checks to make sure it is able to continue to the next phase
  18. 18.  Cell size must be large enough Environment must be suitable
  19. 19.  Before cell division can occur, each chromosome is copied Results in an entire identical copy of chromosomes When cells divide, each set of chromosomes will end up in each new cells
  20. 20. 1. Use candies to create 2 structures that represent chromosome in S phase2. Ask teacher to check your structure
  21. 21.  Cell grows larger in size in preparation for cell division  Produces organelles and structures needed for cell division  Example: centrioles and nucleolus are duplicatedhttp://biology.uoregon.edu/reference/ort_mitosis/images/I-image1-label.jpg
  22. 22.  Shortest part of interphase
  23. 23.  DNA is replicated Cell size must be large enough Environment must be suitable
  24. 24. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter10/animation_-_cell_division.html(2nd half)
  25. 25.  Once the cell is ready to divide and make two new identical cells, it enters M Phase During the M Phase, all of the cell’s energy is devoted to the process of cell division M phase is divided into mitosis and cytokinesis
  26. 26. PMAT Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
  27. 27.  Chromosomes condense (no longer chromatin) and become visible Nuclear envelope disappears Centrioles move to the poles of the cell Spindle fibers begin to extend from the poles
  28. 28. Image is showing: Chromosomes condensing Nuclear envelope disappearing http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/early_late_prophase1_pc.jpg
  29. 29. Illustration is showing: Nuclear envelope disappearing Centrioles moving to poles Spindle fibers forming
  30. 30. 1. Use candies to create 2 structures that represent chromosome in S phase2. Ask teacher to check your structure3. Use additional candy to create structure for prophase4. Ask teacher to check your structure
  31. 31.  Chromosomes line up along equator (center of the cell) Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of each chromosome
  32. 32. http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/result.html?_IXMAXHITS_=1&_IXACTION_=query&_IXFIRST_=16&_IXemailreal=true&_IXbox=259047&_IXSPFX_=templates%2Ft&_IXFPFX_=templates%2Ft
  33. 33. 1. Use candies to create 2 structures that represent chromosome in S phase2. Ask teacher to check your structure3. Use additional candy to create structure for prophase4. Ask teacher to check your structure5. Create metaphase structure by making changes to your prophase structure6. Ask teacher to check your structure
  34. 34.  Spindle fibres shorten pulling the chromosomes to opposite poles Sister chromatids separate at the centromere and move to the poles
  35. 35. Image is showing: Chromosomes moving to the poles
  36. 36. 1. Use candies to create 2 structures that represent chromosome in S phase2. Ask teacher to check your structure3. Use additional candy to create structure for prophase4. Ask teacher to check your structure5. Create metaphase structure by making changes to your prophase structure6. Ask teacher to check your structure7. Create anaphase structure by making changes to your metaphase structure8. Ask teacher to check your structure
  37. 37.  Chromosomes uncoil and become invisible Nuclear envelope reappears Spindle fibers disappear
  38. 38. Image is showing: Chromosomes uncoiling Nuclear envelope reforming
  39. 39. Occurs simultaneouslywith cytokinesisDaughter cells haveidentical geneticinformation
  40. 40. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_cell_cycle_works.html
  41. 41. -chromosome condense (coiled, visible)-nuclear membrane disappear-centrioles move to poles-spindle fiber form -chromosome line up along equator -spindle fibers attach to centromere of chromosome -Spindle fiber shorten & pulling chromosomes -centromere divide -each sister chromatid move to opposite poles -chromosomes uncoil to chromatin -nuclear membrane reform -spindle fiber disappear -daughter cells have identical genetic information
  42. 42.  Separation of the cell and cell contents  Cytoplasm  Organelles  Cell membrane Does not have to be an equal division Daughter cell contents can be different
  43. 43.  Pinching the cell membrane forming a furrow http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/cleavage.jpg
  44. 44. Fluorescence Microscopy Green: microtubules Blue: chromosomes Orange: mitochondria http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/fluorescencemitosis/cytokinesis2large.html
  45. 45.  Formation of a cell plate
  46. 46.  Formation of a cell platehttp://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/images/telophase3_pc.jpg http://www.bio.txstate.edu/~dlemke/botany/1410lab/lab_exercises/lab3/cell_cycle/cytokinesis.jpg
  47. 47.  http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/cha pter2/animation__mitosis_and_cytokinesis.h tml
  48. 48.  Two daughter cells each containing identical genetic information Daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell
  49. 49. For each diagram: Identify the stage of mitosis Name one characteristic that helped you identify the stage http://home.comcast.net/~mjmayhew42/Reading%20Guides/Chapter%2010_files/image004.jpg
  50. 50.  Green: microtubules (spindle fibres and cytoskeleton) Blue: chromosomes Orange: mitochondria http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/2_CELL_DIVISION_files/image009.jpg
  51. 51. http://www.blackspvbiology.50megs.com/Images2/OnionRootTipMitosis.jpg

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