Ms. He's Cancer & cell specialization


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  • b/c cell cycle regulate the cell division. If the DNA
  • Commonly use endoscopy to screen colon cancer
  • Use it to view part of body such as bones and lungs
  • Uses ultra-high-frequency sound waves to create a digital image. Allow doctors to view certain soft tissues (ex. Heart, liver)
  • Take multiple x-rays images of the body from many different angles. Then these images are assembled by computer to gorm a series of detailed images.
  • Strong magnetic field create images with more detail than a CT scan. Use computer to assemble the information into 3D models.
  • If the imagining technologies show abnormalities, next step is to take the suspected cancer cells and analyze to determine what it is. Examine under microscope
  • Storage cells in plat – contains special structures that store starch, source of energy
  • Photosynthetic cells contains chloroplasts to collect energy from sumlight
  • Epidermal cells in root for absorption of water from the soil
  • Guard cells in the surface of leaves control water loss
  • RBC, WBC
  • Ms. He's Cancer & cell specialization

    1. 1. CancerAbnormal Cell divisionMedical technologies
    2. 2. Cell Cycle • The cell cycle regulates how long a cell lives
    3. 3. Cell Lifespan Cell Type Lifespan Lining of gut 5 days Skin 14 days Red blood cell 120 days Liver cell 300-500 days Bone 10 years Neurons From birth
    4. 4. Cell DeathNecrosis•Death due to unexpected and accidental cell damage/injurythat cannot be repaired•Causes: toxins, radiation, lack of oxygen due to the blockage ofblood flowApoptosis•Programmed cell death – Regulated and controlled cell death•A way of removing unwanted cells
    5. 5. Cell Death Specific Signal Cell Damage
    6. 6. Apoptosis – Regulated cell death • Cells programs itself to die after it has done its job • Example: white blood cells after repaired the injury
    7. 7. Out of control cell division• What happens when a cell doesn’t destroy itself?• What happens when a cell doesn‘t stop dividing?
    8. 8. Cancer• Cancer: a group of diseases in which cells undergo uncontrolled division• Tumour: mass of cells that grow and divide without any obvious function in the body• Benign tumour: cells stay together having no effect on surrounding tissue other than physical crowding• Malignant tumour: cells interfere with the function of surrounding cells
    9. 9. Characteristics of Cancer Cells• Rapid cell division• Uses energy and resources of other cells• Does no useful work of its own• May undergo metastasis: cancer cells that break away from the original location and move through the blood stream to a secondary location
    10. 10. Cancer animation•
    11. 11. Cause of Cancer: Mutations• Genetic mutations in the parts of the DNA responsible for regulating the cell cycle• Loss of 1 or more cell cycle checkpoints
    12. 12. Results of Mutation• Cell spends less time in interphase• Continuous mitosis• Rapid cell division
    13. 13. Cause of Cancer: Carcinogens Environmental factors that cause cancer• Viral: • hepatitis B (liver cancer) • HPV (cervical cancer)• Ionizing radiation: • nuclear fallout • x-rays • sun (skin cancer)• Mutagenic chemicals: • cigarette (lung cancer)
    14. 14. Cause of Cancer: Carcinogens• Development of cancer is unpredictable when people are exposed to a carcinogens
    15. 15. Diagnosing Cancer:Imaging technologies• Endoscopy• X-ray• Ultrasound• CT/CAT scan (computerized axial tomography)• MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) CT scan animation
    16. 16. Endoscopy
    17. 17. X-ray Note: X-ray can also cause DNA damage Lung cancer in smokers
    18. 18. Ultrasound Ovarian Cancer
    19. 19. CT/CAT scan (computerized axialtomography)CT scan of healthy lung•
    20. 20. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) Brain tumor
    21. 21. Diagnosing Cancer: Biopsy• A sample of tissue is removed and analyzed to determine what it is CT scan animation
    22. 22. Diagnosing Cancer: Biopsy CT scan animation
    23. 23. Reducing Risk: Screening• Important for those with a family history of cancer• Does not prevent cancer but increase the chance of detecting it early to treat it• Examples: self-examination, blood tests etc.• Some common screening: • Breast exam for breast cancer • Pap smear for cervical cancer
    24. 24. Reducing Risk: Lifestyle Choice• Healthy diet• “super foods”• Reduce body fat• Not smoking
    25. 25. Cancer Treatments• Surgery – physical removal of the tumour• Chemotherapy – a combination of drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells like cancer cells but can also affect normal rapidly dividing cells (e.g. hair follicle, intestinal cells)• Radiation therapy – high energy radiation to kill cancer cells but can damage normal cells
    26. 26. Specialized cellsCells differentiate into different types of cellsfor their specific function
    27. 27. The “typical” animal cell Fig. 7.7 Campbell
    28. 28. The “typical” plant cell Fig. 7.8 Campbell
    29. 29. What actual cells look like• Cells in organisms are specialized• Differentiation not only affects function but also STRUCTURE • Example: red blood cells is flat for easier diffusion of oxygen• Cells physically look different from each other
    30. 30. Specialized Cells • Complex organisms contain many different types of cells that perform different functions • Specialized cells have physical and chemical differences that allow them to perform one job very well
    31. 31. Specialized Plant Cells:transport cells (xylem in orange, phloem in green)
    32. 32. Specialized Plant Cells:storage cells (amyloplasts)
    33. 33. Specialized Plant Cells:photosynthetic cells (contain many chloroplasts)
    34. 34. Specialized Plant Cells:root hair cells (epidermal)
    35. 35. Specialized Plant Cells:guard cells (stomata)
    36. 36. Specialized Animal Cells:blood cells (red erythrocytes & white leukocytes)
    37. 37. Specialized Animal Cells:skin cells
    38. 38. Specialized Animal Cells:bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts)
    39. 39. Specialized Animal Cells:muscle cells
    40. 40. Specialized Animal Cells:muscle cells• Cross-section: bundles of • Longitudinal section: muscle fibres striations
    41. 41. Specialized Animal Cells:gametes (sperm & egg)
    42. 42. Specialized Animal Cells:gametes (sperm & egg)
    43. 43. Specialized Animal Cells:fat cells (adipocytes)
    44. 44. Specialized Animal Cells:fat cells (adipocytes)• Large, central droplet of fat pushes the nucleus to one side.
    45. 45. Specialized Animal Cells:nerve cell (neurons)
    46. 46. Specialized Animal Cells:nerve cell (neurons)
    47. 47. Specialized Animal Cells:rod & cone cells (retina)
    48. 48. Specialized Animal Cells:lung cells
    49. 49. Specialized Animal Cells:figure 2 & 3 on p.59-60 of Nelson Perspective 10