Luminous Sources               http://afonson311.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sunset.jpg
Light ProductionLuminous source                   Non-luminous source• Produces its own light          • Does not produce ...
Luminous Sources•   Incandescence•   Electric discharge•   Phosphorescence•   Fluorescence•   Chemiluminescence•   Biolumi...
Incandescence• Production of light as a  result of high temperature• Air from bulb removed and    Heated tungsten         ...
Electric Dischargelight productionby passing anelectric currentthrough a gas
Electric Discharge•   Neon lights = Geissler tubes (1855)•   Vacuum pump removed most of the air from a closed tube•   Rem...
Phosphorescence• Light production by the absorption of UV light  resulting in the emission of visible light over an  exten...
Fluorescence• Light production by the absorption of UV  light resulting in immediate emission of  visible light• Example: ...
Fluorescent LightStructure of Fluorescent Lights•    Light tube filled with low-pressure mercury vapour and an inert gas  ...
Fluorescent LightPro                           Con• Same light output as        • More expensive than  incandescent bulb b...
Chemiluminescence• Production of light as the result of a  chemical reaction• “Cold light”: Little to no heat is produced
ChemiluminescenceHow light sticks work:• One chemical in a  narrow small glass vial• Other chemical in main  body• Bending...
Chemiluminescence Application       • Camping       • Law enforcement       • Military personnel       • Entertainment ven...
Bioluminescence• Production of light in living organisms as a result  of a chemical reaction• Little to no heat produced• ...
AnglerFish
Bioluminescence• Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): exhibits bright  green fluorescence when exposed to blue light• Original...
Triboluminescence• Production of light from friction (rubbing), pressure  (crushing) or mechanical shock (scratching)• Exp...
Light-emitting  diode (LED)• Production of light by an  electric current flowing in  a diode• Diode: a simple type of  sem...
Light-Emitting Diode ComparisonCompared to incandescent bulbs          Compared to compact fluorescentPros                ...
LASER•   Light•   Amplication by•   Stimulated•   Emission of•   Radiation
Properties of Laser LightLasers                    Incandescent• emit wavelengths of     • emit wavelengths of  the same e...
Properties of Laser Light• Waves are directional (travel in the  same direction)• Results in light that is concentrated  i...
Application of Lasers-   Manufacturing: cutting glass, burning through steel-   Astronomy: measure Earth-moon distance-   ...
Military Application of Lasers   Airborne Laser (ABL) (video)   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LKk1bTL6fk
Military Application of LasersTactical HighEnergy Laser(THEL) (video)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpuU-BEadxI
Media Technology Application• CD & DVDs are read by lasers• Pits: bumps on discs that scatter laser  light in all directio...
DVD & Blu-Ray Construction            DVD       Blu-RayLaser       Red       BlueWavelength 650 nm     405 nmPit         0...
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/blu-ray2.htm
Light production
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Light production

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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rS5LC2aH0c4
  • Sometimes there is mercury vapour inside the glass tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ur5yPa4_j3c&NR=1 (how fluorescent bulbs are made – national geographic) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rS5LC2aH0c4 (how fluorescence in bulbs works, links ideas of fluorescence and electric discharge with neon tubes)
  • Sometimes there is mercury vapour inside the glass tube
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LKk1bTL6fk (ABL) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpuU-BEadxI (THEL)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LKk1bTL6fk
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpuU-BEadxI
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=po3MMIRs6ws&feature=related Answer pg 469 Q #1, 5, 9, 10
  • Light production

    1. 1. Luminous Sources http://afonson311.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/sunset.jpg
    2. 2. Light ProductionLuminous source Non-luminous source• Produces its own light • Does not produce own light• Example: sun, light bulb, lit • Seen only by using match reflected light
    3. 3. Luminous Sources• Incandescence• Electric discharge• Phosphorescence• Fluorescence• Chemiluminescence• Bioluminescence• Triboluminescence• Light-emitting diode (LED)• Laser
    4. 4. Incandescence• Production of light as a result of high temperature• Air from bulb removed and Heated tungsten filament glows replaced with non-reactive gas• Prevents filament from reacting with oxygen and bursting into flame• 5-10% of energy converted to visible light• Most converted to infrared light (heat)• Inefficient
    5. 5. Electric Dischargelight productionby passing anelectric currentthrough a gas
    6. 6. Electric Discharge• Neon lights = Geissler tubes (1855)• Vacuum pump removed most of the air from a closed tube• Remaining air glowed when an electric current passed through• Colour of glow depended on gas inside tube
    7. 7. Phosphorescence• Light production by the absorption of UV light resulting in the emission of visible light over an extended period of time• Objects coated with phosphors that absorb UV light. Phosphors keep some of the energy and over time release some of the lower energy as visible light.• Example: glow-in-the-dark
    8. 8. Fluorescence• Light production by the absorption of UV light resulting in immediate emission of visible light• Example: fluorescent dyes in detergent, highlighter pens, fluorescent lighting
    9. 9. Fluorescent LightStructure of Fluorescent Lights• Light tube filled with low-pressure mercury vapour and an inert gas (e.g. Argon)• Inner surface of tube coated with fluorescent material known as phosphorsHow Fluorescent lights work (video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ur5yPa4_j3c&NR=16. Electric Discharge: Electric current causes Hg atoms to emit UV light7. Fluorescence: UV light strikes phosphors which convert the energy into visible light
    10. 10. Fluorescent LightPro Con• Same light output as • More expensive than incandescent bulb but incandescent bulbs less heat produced • Contain mercury and• Uses less electricity for should be treated like same amount of light hazardous waste for• Lasts longer disposal
    11. 11. Chemiluminescence• Production of light as the result of a chemical reaction• “Cold light”: Little to no heat is produced
    12. 12. ChemiluminescenceHow light sticks work:• One chemical in a narrow small glass vial• Other chemical in main body• Bending stick breaks glass vial• Chemical mix in the main body• Reaction produces visible light
    13. 13. Chemiluminescence Application • Camping • Law enforcement • Military personnel • Entertainment venues • Emergencies • Underwater divers (source has no moving parts, completely sealed) • Hazardous environments where a spark could be dangerous (source does not require electric current)
    14. 14. Bioluminescence• Production of light in living organisms as a result of a chemical reaction• Little to no heat produced• Function: protection from predators, lure prey, attract mates• Example: luciferase enzyme in fireflies catalyze oxidation of luciferin protein to produce light
    15. 15. AnglerFish
    16. 16. Bioluminescence• Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to blue light• Originally discovered in jelly fish• Now used extensively in research as a marker for gene expression
    17. 17. Triboluminescence• Production of light from friction (rubbing), pressure (crushing) or mechanical shock (scratching)• Explained by the breaking of chemical bonds in the material• Most often seen in rubbing of certain crystals• Also works with Wintergreen hard candy, pulling apart 2 pieces of duct tape, peeling transparent Scotch tape
    18. 18. Light-emitting diode (LED)• Production of light by an electric current flowing in a diode• Diode: a simple type of semiconductors• Semiconductor: a material that allows electric current to flow in only one direction• Applications: Christmas lights, traffic lights
    19. 19. Light-Emitting Diode ComparisonCompared to incandescent bulbs Compared to compact fluorescentPros bulbs• No filament (doesn’t burn out) Pros• Not much heat production (less • No toxic mercury wasted energy) • More energy efficient (longer• More energy efficient (longer lifespan, lower power usage) lifespan, lower power usage)Cons Cons• Produces a cool ‘blue’ light • Higher up-front costs instead of the warm ‘yellow’ light
    20. 20. LASER• Light• Amplication by• Stimulated• Emission of• Radiation
    21. 21. Properties of Laser LightLasers Incandescent• emit wavelengths of • emit wavelengths of the same energy level many different energy• results in a light beam levels of a single pure colour • results in white light• monochromatic (combination of all colours)
    22. 22. Properties of Laser Light• Waves are directional (travel in the same direction)• Results in light that is concentrated into one narrow beam and can travel great distances without spreading out• Waves are coherent (wave fronts launch in unison)• Results in light that is very intense
    23. 23. Application of Lasers- Manufacturing: cutting glass, burning through steel- Astronomy: measure Earth-moon distance- Research: surveyor to measure distance- Entertainment: laser light shows- Military: Boeing airborne laser, tactical high energy laser- Media technology: CD, DVD
    24. 24. Military Application of Lasers Airborne Laser (ABL) (video) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LKk1bTL6fk
    25. 25. Military Application of LasersTactical HighEnergy Laser(THEL) (video)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpuU-BEadxI
    26. 26. Media Technology Application• CD & DVDs are read by lasers• Pits: bumps on discs that scatter laser light in all directions• Land: non-bumps that reflect laser light• Reflected light is converted into binary code (0’s and 1’s)
    27. 27. DVD & Blu-Ray Construction DVD Blu-RayLaser Red BlueWavelength 650 nm 405 nmPit 0.4 µm 0.15 µmTrack pitch 0.74 µm 0.32 µmStorage 4.7 GB 25 GB http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/blu-ray1.htm
    28. 28. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/blu-ray2.htm
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