Ms. He's Organelle


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Ms. He's Organelle

  1. 1. Cells & Organelles
  2. 2. AgendaOctober 29, 20121. Review – Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote cells2. Animation – Inner life of a cell3. Think-pair-share – Why study cells4. Introduction to organelles (cell parts)5. Activity – Discovering organelles6. Difference between plant vs. animal cells – Organelles7. Homework: microscope
  3. 3. Prokaryote and Eukaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote Name Before nucleus After nucleus Nucleus Absent Present Organelles Absent Present Cell size Smaller Larger Cell type Unicellular Uni & multicellular Protists, fungi, Example Bacteria cells Animal & plant cells
  4. 4. The inner life of a cell – 9:40
  5. 5. Cell ProcessesAll cells have to perform the same basicactivities to stay alive:  Use energy  Store materials  Absorb materials  Eliminate waste  Transport substances  Reproduce
  6. 6. Why study cells? At each table, discuss why do you think it is important to study cells. Then share with class.
  7. 7. Outer protection Cell control center Energy center Cell processing Storage and Waste Cell divisionCell parts
  8. 8. BIG IDEAAt the end of lesson, you will understand that:Multicellular organisms have similar cellularcomposition but are slightly different ▪ Explore to the types of organelles ▪ Understand the difference in organelle composition between plant and animal cells
  9. 9. Organelle… the ‘mini organs’  Organelles are specialized structures inside the cell that perform specific cell processes for a cell to live  Organelles are surrounded by a membrane
  10. 10. Group Activity Discovering Organelles1. Skit/play to silently act out the function of your organelle. ▪ Class will guess which organelle it is and explain why.1. Create a chart paper  Describe the structure of your organelle  Where is it located?  Specific function of your organelle
  11. 11. Group activity - topics1. Cell membrane2. Nucleus3. ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum)4. Golgi5. Mitochondria6. Vacuole
  12. 12. Cellular Components Function Organelle & cell partsOuter protection Cell wall, Plasma membraneCell control centre Nucleus, nucleolusEnergy centre Mitochondria, Chloroplast Endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes,Cell processing Golgi bodyStorage and waste Vacuole, cytoplasm, chloroplastCell division Centrioles
  13. 13. Cell Membrane Structure  All cells are surrounded by a flexible membrane  Also known as the plasma membrane  The membrane is made of a substance called phospholipid  Phospholipids also form the membranes around organelles
  14. 14. Cell Membrane Function  Controls exchange of material between interior of the cell and the external environment  Protection
  15. 15. Cytoplasm  Mostly made of water  Can range from a liquid to a jelly-like substance  Contains dissolved substances  Cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm
  16. 16. Nucleus  Control center of the cell  Contains genetic information (e.g. chromosomes)  Contains nucleolus  Surrounded by a nuclear membrane – called Nuclear Envelope  Nuclear envelope is double layered and has pores
  17. 17. Nucleolus  Darker area in the nucleus  Where ribosomes are made
  18. 18. Ribosomes  made in nucleolus  can be bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or float freely in cytoplasm  Function to catalyze the reactions of protein synthesis
  19. 19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure  Network of flattened, interconnected membrane sacs (tubes and pockets)  Branches out from the nuclear envelope
  20. 20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Types Two types of ER: rough and smooth
  21. 21. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Contains ribosomes on its membrane surface Site for protein synthesis
  22. 22. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum No ribosomes on its membrane surface Site for lipid synthesis
  23. 23. Golgi Body Structure  Flattened, stacked, interconnected membrane sacs (similar to ER)  Located near ER  Also known as the Golgi apparatus
  24. 24. Golgi Body Function Modifies proteins and lipids Process materials to be removed from the cell Make and secrete mucus Packages products into vesicles for transport
  25. 25. Mitochondria Structure  Surrounded by a double membrane  Inner membrane is folded to increase the surface area  Reactions occur on the inner membrane surface
  26. 26. Mitochondria Function  Produces energy through a process called cellular respiration  Reaction involves converting energy from food (e.g. sugars) to cellular energy  Process requires oxygen glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy
  27. 27. Mitochondria  Cells that are very active (e.g. muscle cells) contain many mitochondria  Cells that are fairly inactive (e.g. fat cells) only have a few mitochondria
  28. 28. Centrioles  Comes as a pair  Found in animal cells only  Made of cylindrical tubes  Involved in cell division by organizing spindle fibers
  29. 29. Vacuole Structure  Fluid-filled sac surrounded by a single layer of membrane  In animal cells: many small vacuoles  In plant cells: one large central vacuole
  30. 30. Vacuole Function  General:  Storage of food, water, waste  Removing unwanted substances from the cell  In Plants:  Maintaining internal fluid pressure (turgor) which helps gives plants structure and strength
  31. 31. Plant Cell Organelles Plant cells contain some organelles that animal cells do not have…
  32. 32. Cell Wall  Found outside of the cell membrane  Rigid but porous  Made of cellulose  Gives shape and support  Provide protection from injury
  33. 33. Chloroplast Structure  Surrounded by a double membrane  Contain chlorophyll, a pigment that gives plants their green colour
  34. 34. Chloroplast Function  Site for starch (a type of sugar) storage  Site for photosynthesis  Reaction involves trapping light energy to create food in the form of sugars  Starting substances are carbon dioxide and water CO2 + H2O + energy  O2 + glucose
  35. 35. Animal vs. Plant cellsAny common structures? Any differences?
  36. 36. Summary of DifferencesFunction Animal Plant Outer Plasma membrane Plasma membraneprotection Cell wall Energy Mitochondria Mitochondria centre Chloroplast Many small One large central Storage vacuoles vacuole
  37. 37. BIG IDEAMulticellular organisms have similar cellularcomposition but are slightly different
  38. 38. Review How many organelles can you name?
  39. 39.  Fill out “Daily Record” sheet Homework: Light microscope ▪ labeling and describe the function of the parts
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