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  • 1. Ions
  • 2. Ion An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has either a positive charge or a negative charge
  • 3. Ion Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons to become stable A atom is stable when the valence shell is full
  • 4. Positive Ion Example Sodium loses one electron to become stable Results in an ion that has a positive charge x = Na
  • 5. Positive Ion Example The symbol “+” is written as a superscript to indicate that the sodium has a charge of 1+ Na+
  • 6. Negative Ion Example Chlorine gains one electron to become stable Results in an ion with a negative charge = Cl
  • 7. Negative Ion Example The symbol “-” is written as a superscript to indicate that the chlorine ion has a charge of 1- Cl-
  • 8. Ion Both ions have a full valence shell containing the maximum number of electrons possible This new arrangement of valence electrons has less energy than the previous arrangement and is stable
  • 9. Cation When an atom gives up one or more electrons it becomes positive Called a cation “cat-eye-on”
  • 10. Anion When an atom gains one or more electron it become negative Called an anion (“an-eye-on”)
  • 11. Ion Ca+ions are Anions are posi+ive negative
  • 12. A metal atom that has lost electrons (cation)and a nonmetal atom that has gained electrons(anion) will have the same number of electronsas its nearest noble gas.
  • 13. Cations An metal atom that has lost electrons (cation) will have the same number of electrons as its nearest noble gas.
  • 14. Cations For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the periodic table to sodium, magnesium and aluminum
  • 15. Cations The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ all have the same number of electrons as atoms of neon. This relationship is known as being isoelectronic (having the same number of electrons). +1 Na Mg +2 Al+3 Ne 11p 12p 13p 10p 12n 12n 14n 10n
  • 16. Anions Apply concept to anions For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the periodic table to nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine
  • 17. Isoelectronic Prove that these atoms are isoelectronic by drawing the Bohr diagrams.Ne N3- O2- F-
  • 18. How to write symbols for Ions Write the symbol of the element and show the ion charge as a superscript to the right of the element symbol  Example: the symbol of a calcium ion is Ca2+ When an ion has a charge of 1+ or 1- the symbol has no number in the superscript  Example: sodium ion is Na+ and not Na1+
  • 19. Naming Cations  A metal that has lost electrons to become Ca +2 an ion has the same 20p name as the element 20n  Eg: Ca2+ = calcium ion
  • 20. Naming Anions  A nonmetal that has gained electrons to become an ion has the the same name as the element but with the ending changed to -ide  Eg: Cl- = chloride ion
  • 21. Naming Anions nitrogen  nitride oxygen  oxide fluorine  fluoride phosphorous  phosphide sulfur  sulfide chlorine  chloride bromine  bromide iodine  iodide
  • 22. Univalent and Multivalent A univalent element has only 1 possible charge as an ion A multivalent element can form an ion in more than one way Example: Copper can form two different ions, Cu+ or Cu2+
  • 23. Naming Multivalent Cations To name an ion of a multivalent element, always include the ion charge as Roman numerals in brackets Example: Cu+  named copper (I)  read as “copper one” Example: Cu2+  named copper (II)  read as “copper two”
  • 24. Roman Numerals for Multivalents I=1 II = 2 III = 3 IV = 4 V=5 VI = 6 Only multivalent metals have Roman numerals in their names
  • 25. Ion Reactivity  Metal atoms tend to lose electrons  Non-metal atoms tend to gain electrons
  • 26. Ion Reactivity The farther the valence electron is from its positive nucleus, the more easily it is removed and the more reactive the atom is
  • 27. Cation Reactivity Reactivity generally increases for cations as you move down the periodic table Example: potassium is more reactive than sodium Rubidium Potassium Cesium Sodium
  • 28. Cation Reactivity Lireactivity increases Na K
  • 29. Cation Reactivity Li  Reactivity generally increases for cations as you move down the periodic table. Na  But why? Electrons that are further away from the nucleus are more easily lost. Thus atoms with more orbitals will K be more reactive.
  • 30. Anion Reactivity Reactivity generally decreases for anions as you move down the periodic table Example: fluorine is more reactive than chlorine Iodine Chlorine Bromine Astatine
  • 31. F Cl Anion Reactivityreactivity increases
  • 32. Anion Reactivity  Reactivity generally decreases for anions as you move down the F periodic table  But why? Elements whose valence shell is closer to the nucleus will gain electrons more readily Cl because they are closer to the nucleus. Negative electrons have a stronger attraction for the positive nucleus when the valence shell is closer to the nucleus.