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Univalent, Multivalent, Polyatomic, Binary
acid, Oxyacid, Hydroxide bases, Bicarbonate
bases

Ionic Compound
Nomenclature
Definition of Compounds
 pure substance
 two or more elements
 chemically

combined

+
Na

Cl

=
NaCl
Types of Compounds
Grade 9 definitions
 Ionic compound: consists of a metal and
nonmental
 Molecular

nonmetals

compoun...
Ionic Compounds
 It

is more accurate to say that ionic
compounds form when atoms transfer
electrons
 Ionic compounds co...
Molecular Compounds
 It

is more accurate to say that molecular
compounds form when atoms share
electrons
 There is no d...
Example of Ionic
Compound
 Formation

of NaCl, or table salt

+
Na

Cl

=
NaCl
Example of Ionic
Compound
 Sodium

has 1 valence electron and wants to
remove it to be stable
 Chlorine has 7 valence el...
Ionic Compound
A

cation will react with an anion to acquire
a full valence shell
 The attraction between the cation and...
Properties of Ionic
Compound
 At

room temperature, most are hard,
brittle solids that can be crushed
Properties of Ionic
Compound
 Ionic

compounds form
crystals that have an
alternating arrangement of
positively charged i...
Properties of Ionic
Compound
 In

an ionic crystal,
every ion is attracted
to every other ion
 Thus, ionic crystals
have...
Properties of Ionic
Compound
 When

an ionic compound
dissolves in water, the
crystal structure breaks
down and the ions ...
Properties of Ionic
Compound



Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct
electricity
Nomenclature
 A system used to name things
 In this case, we will be naming

a variety
of different types of ionic compo...
Univalent & Multivalent
Ions
ions: Ions that only have one
possible charge

 Univalent

ions: Ions that have two or
more ...
Univalent & Multivalent
Compounds
compounds: Compounds where the
cation only has one possible charge

 Univalent

compoun...
Naming Univalent Ionic
Compounds
(Chemical Formula--> Chemical Name)
Examples: KBr, Na3P, ZnF2

1. Name the cation first
•...
Naming Univalent Ionic
Compounds
(Chemical Name -->Chemical Formula)
Examples: Calcium Chloride

1. Identify the charges o...
RULE for all compounds
 Although

ionic compounds
are made of charged
particles, the compound
itself has no net charge

...
Naming Univalent Ionic
Compounds
Aluminum oxide
• What are the charges on the ions?

• How many of each do we need to make...
Naming Univalent Ionic
Compounds
Calcium oxide
• What are the charges on the ions?
• How many of each do we need to make t...
Multivalent Ionic
Compounds
 Multivalent

compound: Compounds

where the metal ion has two or more
possible charges.
Naming Multivalent Ionic
Compounds
(Chemical Formula--> Written Name)
Examples: FeO, Cu2S

1. Identify all the possible ch...
Naming Multivalent Ionic
Compounds
CoCl2, MnCl4

1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions
2. Determine which charg...
Naming Multivalent Ionic
Compounds
Cobalt (II) Chloride

• What are the charges on the ions?
• How many of each do we need...
Writing Chemical Formula for
Multivalent Ionic Compounds
Bismuth (V) Phosphide
• What are the charges on the ions?
• How m...
Polyatomic Ions



Poly = 2 or more
Atomic = atoms



A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms,
usually of different elemen...
Polyatomic Ions
Name

Formula

ammonium

NH4+

carbonate

CO32-

bicarbonate

HCO3-

hydroxide

OH-

nitrate

NO3-

nitrit...
Polyatomic Ions


Similar polyatomic ions are named using the suffixes
“-ate” or “-ite”





Example:
NO3- is nitrate
...
Naming Polyatomic Ionic
Compounds
LiHCO3
1. Name the cation:
1. Identify the polyatomic ion (Use table)
1. Combine the nam...
Naming Polyatomic Ionic
Compounds
FeSO3
1. Name the cation:
2. Identify the charge of the multivalent ion used for the
com...
Naming Polyatomic Ionic
Compounds
Cu(NO3)2
1. Name the cation:
2. Identify the charge of the multivalent ion used for the
...
Writing Chemical Formula for
Polyatomic Ionic Compounds
Calcium chlorate
1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compoun...
Writing Chemical Formula
for
Polyatomic Ionic Compounds
Arsenic (III) acetate
• What are the charges on the ions?
• How ma...
Recognizing Acids
 Acids

have their own special naming
system

 All

acids will have the word ‘acid’ in it’s
name.

 E...
Recognizing Acids

 All

acids have a chemical formula that
starts with an H
 Example: HCl, H2SO4
Types of Acids
Binary or Simple acids
 Consist of hydrogen and a nonmetal
 Example: HCl
Oxyacids
 Consists of hydrogen ...
Binary Acids
Naming rules:
 ‘hydro’ + nonmetal ‘ic’ + ‘acid’
 Examples:
 HCl
 H3 P
 HI
Binary Acids
Nonmetal

Formula

Name

Fluorine

HF

Hydrofluoric acid

Chlorine

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

Bromine

HBr

Hyd...
Oxyacids
 Consists

of a hydrogen and a polyatomic
ion containing an oxygen

 Naming

rules:

 1. Identify the polyatom...
Oxyacids
H2SO4
 1. Identify the polyatomic in the formula
 2. Look for the oxyacid name on the reference chart
 3. add ...
Oxyacids
HC2H3O2
 1. Identify the polyatomic in the formula
 2. Look for the oxyacid name on the reference chart

 3. ...
Practice
Acid name

Chemical formula

HBr
Hydrophosphoric acid
H3PO4
Carbonic acid
Practice
Acid name

Chemical formula

HBr

Hydrobromic acid

H3P

Hydrophosphoric acid

H3PO4

Phosphoric acid

H2CO3

Car...
Oxyacids
Polyatomic
name

Oxyacid name

Relative # of
oxygens

Hypo---ite

Hypo---ous acid

-2

----ite

---ous acid

-1

...
Oxyacids
Polyatomic
name

Oxyacid name

Formula

Hypochlorite

Hypochlorous acid

HClO

chlorite

chlorous acid

HClO2

ch...
Ionic Nomenclature
Summary

XY
Univalent
cation

Multivalent
cation

Hydrogen
(acid)

Anion

Ionic

Polyatomic Anion

Bina...
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Ionic compounds - Ms. Goldenberg

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Transcript of "Ionic compounds - Ms. Goldenberg"

  1. 1. Univalent, Multivalent, Polyatomic, Binary acid, Oxyacid, Hydroxide bases, Bicarbonate bases Ionic Compound Nomenclature
  2. 2. Definition of Compounds  pure substance  two or more elements  chemically combined + Na Cl = NaCl
  3. 3. Types of Compounds Grade 9 definitions  Ionic compound: consists of a metal and nonmental  Molecular nonmetals compound: consists of 2
  4. 4. Ionic Compounds  It is more accurate to say that ionic compounds form when atoms transfer electrons  Ionic compounds consists of:  ions of opposite charges  an electron donor and acceptor
  5. 5. Molecular Compounds  It is more accurate to say that molecular compounds form when atoms share electrons  There is no donor or acceptor (We will study this in more detail in another lesson)
  6. 6. Example of Ionic Compound  Formation of NaCl, or table salt + Na Cl = NaCl
  7. 7. Example of Ionic Compound  Sodium has 1 valence electron and wants to remove it to be stable  Chlorine has 7 valence electrons and wants to gain one to be stable  Thus, one electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine Na Cl
  8. 8. Ionic Compound A cation will react with an anion to acquire a full valence shell  The attraction between the cation and the anion is known as an ionic bond Na Cl
  9. 9. Properties of Ionic Compound  At room temperature, most are hard, brittle solids that can be crushed
  10. 10. Properties of Ionic Compound  Ionic compounds form crystals that have an alternating arrangement of positively charged ions and negatively charged ions  When they break their edges are well-defined
  11. 11. Properties of Ionic Compound  In an ionic crystal, every ion is attracted to every other ion  Thus, ionic crystals have very high melting points  Eg. NaCl melts at 800oC
  12. 12. Properties of Ionic Compound  When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the crystal structure breaks down and the ions become free to move.
  13. 13. Properties of Ionic Compound  Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity
  14. 14. Nomenclature  A system used to name things  In this case, we will be naming a variety of different types of ionic compounds:  Univalent  Multivalent  Polyatomic  Acids: Binary & Oxyacid  Bases: Hydroxide & Bicarbonate
  15. 15. Univalent & Multivalent Ions ions: Ions that only have one possible charge  Univalent ions: Ions that have two or more possible charges  Multivalent
  16. 16. Univalent & Multivalent Compounds compounds: Compounds where the cation only has one possible charge  Univalent compound: Compounds where the cation has more than one possible charge  Multivalent ** Only some metals are multivalent
  17. 17. Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds (Chemical Formula--> Chemical Name) Examples: KBr, Na3P, ZnF2 1. Name the cation first • Cations have the same name as the element name 2. Name the anion second • Anions change the ending of its name changes to “ide” 2. Subscripts can be ignored when determining the name
  18. 18. Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds (Chemical Name -->Chemical Formula) Examples: Calcium Chloride 1. Identify the charges of the Ions 2. Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral 3. Use the lowest common multiple
  19. 19. RULE for all compounds  Although ionic compounds are made of charged particles, the compound itself has no net charge  All ion charges must be equal and add up to zero
  20. 20. Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds Aluminum oxide • What are the charges on the ions? • How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? • Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.
  21. 21. Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds Calcium oxide • What are the charges on the ions? • How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? • Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed. • Use the lowest common multiple
  22. 22. Multivalent Ionic Compounds  Multivalent compound: Compounds where the metal ion has two or more possible charges.
  23. 23. Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds (Chemical Formula--> Written Name) Examples: FeO, Cu2S 1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions 2. Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is needed to make the compound neutral 2. Name the cation • Indicate the charge in brackets using Roman numerals (I,II,III,IV) 2. Name the anion
  24. 24. Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds CoCl2, MnCl4 1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions 2. Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is needed to make the compound neutral 2. Name the metal ion • Indicate the charge in brackets using Roman numerals (I,II,III,IV) 2. Name the non-metal ion • Change the ending to ‘ide’
  25. 25. Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds Cobalt (II) Chloride • What are the charges on the ions? • How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? • Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.
  26. 26. Writing Chemical Formula for Multivalent Ionic Compounds Bismuth (V) Phosphide • What are the charges on the ions? • How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? • Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.
  27. 27. Polyatomic Ions   Poly = 2 or more Atomic = atoms  A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms, usually of different elements, that act as a single ion  Example: one atom of sulphur and four atoms of oxygen form the polyatomic ion called sulphate, or SO42-
  28. 28. Polyatomic Ions Name Formula ammonium NH4+ carbonate CO32- bicarbonate HCO3- hydroxide OH- nitrate NO3- nitrite NO2- permanganate MnO4- phosphate PO43- phosphite PO33- sulphate SO 2-
  29. 29. Polyatomic Ions  Similar polyatomic ions are named using the suffixes “-ate” or “-ite”    Example: NO3- is nitrate NO2- is nitrite  Most common polyatomic ions have a charge  Exception: ammonium ion (NH4+) has a positive charge negative
  30. 30. Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds LiHCO3 1. Name the cation: 1. Identify the polyatomic ion (Use table) 1. Combine the names. Do not change the polyatomic ending.
  31. 31. Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds FeSO3 1. Name the cation: 2. Identify the charge of the multivalent ion used for the compound to be neutral. Indicate the charge using I,II,III,IV 3. Identify the polyatomic ion (Use table) 4. Combine the names. Do not change the polyatomic ending.
  32. 32. Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Cu(NO3)2 1. Name the cation: 2. Identify the charge of the multivalent ion used for the compound to be neutral. Indicate the charge using I,II,III,IV 3. Identify the polyatomic ion (Use table) 4. Combine the names. Do not change the polyatomic ending.
  33. 33. Writing Chemical Formula for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Calcium chlorate 1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound 1. Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral 3. Write the metal atom first. 4. If subscripts are needed for the polyatomic ion, place a bracket around it first. Make sure to use the lowest common multiple.
  34. 34. Writing Chemical Formula for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Arsenic (III) acetate • What are the charges on the ions? • How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral? • Write the chemical formula using subscripts and brackets as needed.
  35. 35. Recognizing Acids  Acids have their own special naming system  All acids will have the word ‘acid’ in it’s name.  Examples:  Hydrochloric acid  Sulphuric acid  Acetic acid
  36. 36. Recognizing Acids  All acids have a chemical formula that starts with an H  Example: HCl, H2SO4
  37. 37. Types of Acids Binary or Simple acids  Consist of hydrogen and a nonmetal  Example: HCl Oxyacids  Consists of hydrogen and a polyatomic  Example: H2SO4  Example: CH3COOH
  38. 38. Binary Acids Naming rules:  ‘hydro’ + nonmetal ‘ic’ + ‘acid’  Examples:  HCl  H3 P  HI
  39. 39. Binary Acids Nonmetal Formula Name Fluorine HF Hydrofluoric acid Chlorine HCl Hydrochloric acid Bromine HBr Hydrobromic acid Iodine HI Hydroiodic acid Sulphur H2S Hydrosulfuric acid Phosphorus H3P Hydrophosphoric acid
  40. 40. Oxyacids  Consists of a hydrogen and a polyatomic ion containing an oxygen  Naming rules:  1. Identify the polyatomic in the formula  2. Look for the oxyacid name on the reference chart  3. add ‘acid’  **Notice that you do NOT use ‘hydro’
  41. 41. Oxyacids H2SO4  1. Identify the polyatomic in the formula  2. Look for the oxyacid name on the reference chart  3. add ‘acid’
  42. 42. Oxyacids HC2H3O2  1. Identify the polyatomic in the formula  2. Look for the oxyacid name on the reference chart   3. add ‘acid’
  43. 43. Practice Acid name Chemical formula HBr Hydrophosphoric acid H3PO4 Carbonic acid
  44. 44. Practice Acid name Chemical formula HBr Hydrobromic acid H3P Hydrophosphoric acid H3PO4 Phosphoric acid H2CO3 Carbonic acid
  45. 45. Oxyacids Polyatomic name Oxyacid name Relative # of oxygens Hypo---ite Hypo---ous acid -2 ----ite ---ous acid -1 ---ate ---ic acid Per--ate Per---ic acid reference +1
  46. 46. Oxyacids Polyatomic name Oxyacid name Formula Hypochlorite Hypochlorous acid HClO chlorite chlorous acid HClO2 chlorate chloric acid HClO3 Perchlorate Perchloric acid HClO4
  47. 47. Ionic Nomenclature Summary XY Univalent cation Multivalent cation Hydrogen (acid) Anion Ionic Polyatomic Anion Binary acid Ionic Oxyacid
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