Ionic compounds
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Ionic compounds

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Ionic compounds Ionic compounds Presentation Transcript

  • Univalent, Multivalent, Polyatomic, Binary acid, Oxyacid Ionic Compound Nomenclature
  • Definition of Compounds  pure substance  two or more elements  chemically combined + Na = Cl NaCl
  • Types of Compounds Grade 9 definitions  Ionic compound: consists of a metal and nonmental  Molecular: consists of 2 nonmetals
  • Ionic Compounds  It is more accurate to say that ionic compounds form when atoms transfer electrons  Ionic compounds consists of:  ions of opposite charges  an electron donor and acceptor
  • Molecular Compounds  It is more accurate to say that molecular compounds form when atoms share electrons  There is no donor or acceptor (We will study this in more detail in another lesson)
  • Example of Ionic Compound  Formation of NaCl, or table salt + Na = Cl NaCl
  • Example of Ionic Compound  Sodium has 1 valence electron and wants to remove it to be stable  Chlorine has 7 valence electrons and wants to gain one to be stable  Thus, one electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine Na Cl
  • Ionic Compound  A cation will react with an anion to acquire a full valence shell  The attraction between the cation and the anion is known as an ionic bond Na Cl
  • Properties of Ionic Compound  At room temperature, most are hard, brittle solids that can be crushed
  • Properties of Ionic Compound  Ionic compounds form crystals that have an alternating arrangement of positively charged ions and negatively charged ions  When they break their edges are well-defined
  • Properties of Ionic Compound  In an ionic crystal, every ion is attracted to every other ion  Thus, ionic crystals have very high melting points  Eg. NaCl melts at 800oC
  • Properties of Ionic Compound  When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the crystal structure breaks down and the ions become free to move.
  • Properties of Ionic Compound  Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity
  • Nomenclature  A system used to name things  In this case, we will be naming a variety of different types of ionic compounds:      Univalent Multivalent Polyatomic Acids: Binary & Oxyacid Bases: Hydroxide & Bicarbonate
  • Univalent Ionic Compounds  Compounds where the metal ion only has one possible charge.
  • Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds 1. Name the metal ion first   The name of the metal ion is the same as the element name Example: in KBr, the name of the K+ ion is potassium 2. Name the non-metal ion second   When a non-metal becomes a negative ion, the ending of its name changes to “ide” Example: a bromine atom become bromide ion (Br -) 3. Combine the names. The formulas of ionic compounds often contain numbers called subscripts which can be ignored when determining the name.  Example: Na3P is sodium phosphide
  • Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds Example Problem 1: Write the name of the ionic compound ZnF2 1. Name the metal ion:  Zn forms only one type of ion (Zn2+), so the name is zinc 2. Name the non-metal ion:  The atom is fluorine so the ion is fluoride 3. Combine the names:  ZnF2 = zinc fluoride
  • Writing Chemical Formula for Univalent Ionic Compounds 1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound  Example: Calcium chloride  Ca2+ and Cl2. Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral  Need 2 Cl- to balance 1 Ca2+ 3. Write the metal atom first. Use subscript to indicate the number of ions if it is more than 1. Make sure to use on the lowest common multiple.  Calcium chloride = CaCl2  Wrong: Ca2Cl4
  • RULE for all compounds  Although ionic compounds are made of charged particles, the compound itself has no net charge  All ion charges must be equal and add up to zero
  • Writing Chemical Formula for Univalent Ionic Compounds 1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound  Example: Calcium chloride  Ca2+ and Cl2. Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral  Need 2 Cl- to balance 1 Ca2+ 3. Write the metal atom first. Use subscript to indicate the number of ions if it is more than 1. Make sure to use the lowest common multiple.  Calcium chloride = CaCl2  Wrong: Ca2Cl4
  • Writing Chemical Formula for Univalent Ionic Compounds Example Problem 2: Write the chemical formula for Aluminum oxide.  What are the charges on the ions?  How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral?  Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.
  • Multivalent Ionic Compounds  Compounds where the metal ion has two or more possible charges.
  • Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds 1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions.  Example: FeO  Fe can be Fe2+ or Fe3+  O is O22. Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is needed to make the compound neutral  Example: Need to use Fe2+ to balance O23. Name the metal ion indicating the charge in brackets using Roman numerals  1 = I, 2 = II, 3 = III, 4 = IV, 5 = V 4. Name the non-metal ion changing the ending to ‘ide’  Example: FeO = Iron (II) oxide
  • Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds 1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions.  Example: FeO  Fe can be Fe2+ or Fe3+  O is O22. Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is needed to make the compound neutral  Example: Need to use Fe2+ to balance O23. Name the metal ion indicating the charge in brackets using Roman numerals  1 = I, 2 = II, 3 = III, 4 = IV, 5 = V 4. Name the non-metal ion changing the ending to ‘ide’  Example: FeO = Iron (II) oxide
  • Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds Example Problem 3: Write the name of the ionic compound MnCl4 1. Identify the ions that form the compound:  Mn2+ or Mn4+ and Cl2. Determine the charge of the multivalent ion that would make the compound neutral.  Cl4 means there are 4 x Cl- = a total charge of 4 Would need to use Mn4+ 3. Name the metal ion indicating the charge using Roman numerals in brackets and adding the nonmetal –ide.  Manganese (IV) chloride
  • Writing Chemical Formula for multivalent Ionic Compounds Use the same rules as univalent ionic compounds 1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound  Example: Cobalt (II) chloride means Co2+ and Cl- 2. Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral  Need 2 Cl- to balance 1 Co2+ 3. Write the metal atom first. Use subscript to indicate the number of ions if it is more than 1. Make sure to use the lowest common multiple.  Cobalt (II) chloride = CoCl2  Wrong: Co2Cl4
  • Writing Chemical Formula for Multivalent Ionic Compounds Example Problem 4: Write the chemical formula for Bismuth (V) Phosphide.  What are the charges on the ions?  How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral?  Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.
  • Polyatomic Ions  Poly = 2 or more  Atomic = atoms  A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms, usually of different elements, that act as a single ion  Example: one atom of sulphur and four atoms of oxygen form the polyatomic ion called sulphate, or SO42-
  • Polyatomic Ions  Similar polyatomic ions are named using the suffixes “-ate” or “-ite”  Example: NO3- is nitrate; NO2- is nitrite  Most common polyatomic ions have a negative charge  However, the ammonium ion NH4+ has a positive charge
  • Polyatomic Ions Name Formula ammonium carbonate bicarbonate hydroxide nitrate nitrite permanganate phosphate phosphite sulphate sulphite NH4+ CO32HCO3OHNO3NO2MnO4PO43PO33SO42SO32-
  • Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Example Problem 5: Write the name of the ionic compound LiHCO3 1. Name the metal/positive ion:  Example: Li+ = lithium 2. Identify the polyatomic ion (use table):  Example: HCO3- = bicarbonate 3. Combine the names. Do not change the polyatomic ending.  LiHCO3 = lithium bicarbonate
  • Writing Chemical Formula for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds 1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound  Example: Calcium chlorate  Ca2+ and ClO42. Determine the number of positive and negative ions needed to make the compound neutral  Need 2 ClO4- to balance 1 Ca2+ 3. Write the metal atom first. If subscripts are needed for the polyatomic ion, place a bracket around it first. Make sure to use the lowest common multiple.  Calcium chlorate = Ca(ClO4)2
  • Writing Chemical Formula for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Example Problem 6: Write the chemical formula for arsenic (III) acetate.  What are the charges on the ions?  How many of each do we need to make the compound neutral?  Write the chemical formula using subscripts and brackets as needed.
  • Recognizing Acids  Acids have their own special naming system  All acids will have the word ‘acid’ in it’s name.  Examples:  Hydrochloric acid  Sulphuric acid  Acetic acid
  • Recognizing Acids  All acids have a chemical formula that starts with an H  Example: HCl, H2SO4
  • Types of Acids Binary or Simple acids  Consist of hydrogen and a nonmetal  Example: HCl Oxyacids  Consists of hydrogen and a polyatomic  Example: H2SO4
  • Binary Acids Naming rules:  ‘hydro’ + nonmetal ‘ic’ + ‘acid’ Example: HCl  By steps: hydro + chlor ic + acid  Final answer: hydrochloric acid
  • Binary Acids Nonmetal Formula Name Fluorine HF Hydrofluoric acid Chlorine HCl Hydrochloric acid Bromine HBr Hydrobromic acid Iodine HI Hydroiodic acid Sulphur H 2S Hydrosulfuric acid Phosphorus H 3P Hydrophosphoric acid
  • Oxyacids  Consists of a hydrogen and a polyatomic ion containing an oxygen  Naming rules:  Identify the polyatomic in the formula  Look for the oxyacid name on the reference chart and add ‘acid’  Notice that you do NOT use ‘hydro’
  • Oxyacids  Example: H2SO4  Polyatomic: SO4 (sulfate)  Oxyacid name: sulfuric  Final answer: sulfuric acid
  • Oxyacids Polyatomic name Oxyacid name Relative # of oxygens Hypo….ite Hypo….ous acid -2 ….ite ….ous acid -1 ….ate ….ic acid Per….ate Per….ic acid reference +1
  • Oxyacids Polyatomic name Oxyacid name Formula Hypochlorite Hypochlorous acid HClO chlorite chlorous acid HClO2 chlorate chloric acid HClO3 Perchlorate Perchloric acid HClO4
  • Practice Acid name Chemical formula HBr ? ? Hydrophosphoric acid H3PO4 ? ? Carbonic acid
  • Practice Acid name Chemical formula HBr Hydrobromic acid H 3P Hydrophosphoric acid H3PO4 Phosphoric acid H2CO3 Carbonic acid
  • Ionic Nomenclature Summary XY Univalent cation Multivalent cation Hydrogen (acid) Anion Ionic Polyatomic Anion Binary acid Ionic Oxyacid