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Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
Hormones affecting glucose
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Hormones affecting glucose

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  • http://www.icgeb.org/~p450srv/ligand/aldosterone.html http://www.icgeb.org/~p450srv/ligand/cortisol.html http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Testosterone_structure.png
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    • 1. Endocrine SystemPart 2: Glucose Regulation
    • 2. Glucose in Blood Glucose is an important fuel for cells Pancreas maintains blood glucose levels by secreting hormones
    • 3. Pancreas Exocrine system: secretion of hormones through ducts Exocrine cells:  98%-99% of pancreas by mass  Produce digestive enzymes released into small intestine http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/17/74317-004-9B143D52.jpg
    • 4. Pancreas Endocrine cells:  1%-2% of pancreas by mass  Scattered throughout the pancreas  Islets of Langerhans http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/17/74317-004-9B143D52.jpg
    • 5. Islets of Langerhans Alpha cells: secrete glucagon Beta cells: secrete insulin Insulin and glucagon are antagonistic hormones http://www.rajeun.net/diabetes-pancreas.gif
    • 6. Insulin Stimulant:  Blood glucose level rises above a set point  Observed naturally after eating a meal Effect:  Uptake of glucose by body cells through facilitated diffusion by activating glucose transporters  Inhibits the livers breakdown of glycogen  Inhibits liver’s conversion of amino acids and glycerol to glucose Result:  lowering blood glucose level  decrease stimulus for insulin release
    • 7. Glucagon Stimulant:  Lowered blood glucose  Glucose cleared from the blood stream Effect:  Liver to increase breakdown of glycogen  Liver convert amino acids and glycerol to glucose Result:  Higher blood glucose level  Decrease stimulus for glucagon release
    • 8. Insulin Function When is insulin released? after eating hyperglycemia decreased blood cellular signals for beta cells sugar insulin release increased glucose uptake glycogen production in liver
    • 9. Glucagon Function What does glucagon do? breaks down glycogen hypoglycemia increased blood cellular signals for alpha cells sugar glucagon release glucose release from liver glucose production in liver
    • 10. Comparing Insulin & GlucagonCharacteristics Insulin GlucagonSituationStimulant:Blood glucoselevelsEffect: GlucoseuptakeEffect: Glycogenbreakdown
    • 11. Comparing Insulin & GlucagonCharacteristics Insulin GlucagonSituation After a meal Between mealsStimulant:Blood glucoselevelsEffect: GlucoseuptakeEffect: Glycogenbreakdown
    • 12. Comparing Insulin & GlucagonCharacteristics Insulin GlucagonSituation After a meal Between mealsStimulant: IncreasedBlood glucoselevelsEffect: Glucose IncreaseuptakeEffect: Glycogen Decreasebreakdown
    • 13. Comparing Insulin & GlucagonHormone Insulin GlucagonSituation After a meal Between mealsStimulant: Increased DecreasedBlood glucoselevelsEffect: Glucose Increase DecreaseuptakeEffect: Glycogen Decrease Increasebreakdown
    • 14. Diabetes Mellitus Cause Decreased insulin levels  Type 1 diabetes: Immune system attacks insulin producing cells  Type 2 diabetes: reasons not related to autoimmunity Type 2: diabetes: Decreased responsiveness of cells to insulin  Inability of insulin to regulate blood glucose levels  Impairment of ability to remove glucose from the bloodstream
    • 15. Diabetes Mellitus Types Type 1 Type 2 (Insulin dependent) (Non-insulin dependent)Onset Childhood Adult (past age 40) PregnancyMolecular Insulin deficiency Insulin resistanceCause (unresponsive receptors) and deficiencyCause Genetic Obesity Autoimmune disorderTreatment Daily insulin injections Exercise & dietary control drugs
    • 16. Diabetes Mellitus Effect Glucose unavailable to body cells  Hyperglycemia: high glucose in blood  Excessive hunger  Fat used for cellular respiration  Increased blood viscosity and decreased blood flow ▪ leads to blurry vision (poor blood flow in capillaries of retina) ▪ foot infections (gravity cause blood to pool in feet) Kidneys start to excrete glucose  Glucosuria: glucose in urine, “sweet” urine  Frequent urination  Persistent thirst
    • 17. Diabetes Insipidus Cause Inability of kidneys to conserve water Cause: deficiency in ADH  ADH controls excretion rate by reabsorbing water from urine into blood
    • 18. Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms Excessive thirst Frequent urination Dilute urine Urine does not contain glucose and is not sweet
    • 19. Diabetes Insipidus Treatment Drinking sufficient water Take ADH medication
    • 20. Canadian Connection Frederick Banting & Charles Best Nobel Prize – 1923 insulin isolation  tied off ducts to digestive tract  cell producing digestive enzymes shrivelled  only islets of Langerhans remained
    • 21. Banting and Best Banting and Best began their experiments by removing the pancreas from a dog. This resulted in the following:  Its blood sugar rose.  It became thirsty, drank lots of water, and urinated more often.  It became weaker and weaker.  The dog had developed diabetes. They then isolated “insulin” and injected it back into the dogs and they seemed to be cured.
    • 22. Leonard Thompson January 1922 in Toronto, Canada 14-year-old boy was the first to be treated with insulin injections
    • 23. Stress RegulationWhat is Stress? The feeling of alarm or distress when reacting to particular event Can be physical, emotional, cognitive or mental
    • 24. Stress Response Natural response Prepares an individual to handle the stressor (an event that provokes stress) Types:  Short term: responses are immediate  Long term: responses are ongoing and can cause detrimental side effects on the individual
    • 25. Adrenal Gland Secretes stress response hormones Location: adjacent to kidneys Structure:  Adrenal cortex : outer portion, involved with long- term stress response  Adrenal medulla : inner portion, involved with short-term stress response
    • 26. Short Term Stress Response
    • 27. Short-term Stress Response Stress excites nerve cells to release a neurotransmitter: acetylcholine (ACh) Stimulates adrenal medulla to release catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • 28. Catecholamines Synthesized from tyrosine Secreted in response to positive or negative stress by the adrenal medulla Types:  Epinephrine (adrenaline)  Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
    • 29. Catecholamines Tyrosine
    • 30. Effects Stimulates the “fight-or-flight” response Increase metabolism  Cellular respiration produces ATP  Need oxygen  Need energy source (glucose)
    • 31. Effects: Energy Source Increased blood glucose levels  Glycogen  glucose  more ATP readily available Stimulates the release of fatty acids from fat cells to supply the body with more energy Decreased kidney and digestive activity
    • 32. Effects: Oxygen Increased blood pressure and blood flow  oxygen is distributed to cells faster Increased breathing rate Relaxes/contracts certain blood vessels  overall effect of redirecting blood away from non- vital areas  increasing blood flow to the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles Increased alertness
    • 33. Application Epinephrine is present in epinephrine autoinjectors (EpiPens)
    • 34. Long Term Stress Response
    • 35. Long-Term Stress Response:Neuroendocrine pathway  CRH  ACTH  Corticosteroid  Glucocorticoid  Mineralcorticoid
    • 36. Long-Term Stress Response: Neuroendocrine pathwayLocation HormoneStimulus StressHypothalamus Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH)Anterior Pituitary Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)Adrenal Cortex Corticosteroids: Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) Mineralocoritcoids (e.g. aldosterone)Effect Increase glucose production Increase oxygen delivery
    • 37. Corticotropin-ReleasingHormone (CRH) Neuropeptide hormone Released from hypothalamus Cause: stressful stimuli Stimulates anterior pituitary to synthesize ACTH
    • 38. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone(ACTH) Polypeptide hormone Tropic hormone Produced from anterior pituitary Stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize corticosteroids
    • 39. Corticosteroids steroids produced and released from the adrenal cortex Type Example Glucocorticoid Cortisol Mineralcorticoid Aldoesterone Sex hormones testosterone
    • 40. GlucocorticoidsEffects: Energy source Affects glucose metabolism  Synthesize of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources  Liver breaks down muscle protein in skeletal muscles to glucose Occurs when body needs more glucose than what the liver can produce from its storage of glycogen
    • 41. MineralocorticoidsEffects: Indirectly on oxygen Hormone that affects the body’s osmotic balance  Stimulates reabsorption of salt and water by kidneys Cause increase in blood volume and pressure Increase oxygen delivery
    • 42. Compare Short & Long Term Stress ManagementStress Short term Long termHormones Epinephrine Glucocorticoid (cortisol) Norepinephrine Mineralcorticoid (aldoesterone)Energy Glucose from Glucose from non- glycogen stores carbohydrate sourceOxygen Increase heart Increase reabsorption rate, pressure, flow of salt and water, blood & resp rate, volume, pressure & regulate vessel size flow
    • 43. Stress Associated Disorders
    • 44. Hypersecretion: Cushing’s Disease Overproduction of corticosteroids (glucocorticoid) Cause: pituitary tumour (excess ACTH) Treatment: surgery, radiation
    • 45. Cushing’s Disease Effects Mimic diabetes:  Hyperglycermia (high blood glucose)  Glucosuria (glucose in urine)  Protein shortage (protein converted to glucose) Physical effects:  Excess glucose deposited as body fat in abdomen, face, above shoulder blades ▪ Weight gain, “moon face” and “buffalo hump”  Appendages remain thin  Muscle weakness, prone to bruising  Weak skeleton, prone to fractures
    • 46. Hyposecretion: Addison’s Disease Failure to produce adequate levels of glucocorticoid (cortisol) Cause: autoimmune / adrenal gland disorders  immune system gradually destroys the adrenal cortex Treated with gluco/mineralocorticoids
    • 47. Addison’s Disease Symptoms major weight loss dizziness, vomiting and nausea extreme pain in stomach

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