Homeostasis

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  • Organisms that reduce oxygen consumption rates in response to declining environmental dissolved O2 (DO) concentrations are termed metabolic conformers. Metabolic regulators maintain oxygen consumption rates despite variations in DO concentrations (Heath 1995).
  • Homeostasis

    1. 1. Regulator & ConformerHomeostasis
    2. 2. When things work...Honda Accord ‘Cog’ commercialhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ve4M4UsJQo
    3. 3. http://29.media.tumblr.com/eiAbVQY7Vplg25wgYVcAt9P0o1_500.jpgHomeostasisRegulation of internal environment throughthe constant physiological adjustments of thebody in response to external environmentchangesalso known as dynamic equilibriumRequires expenditure of energy
    4. 4. Example of homeostasisBrainstorm 3physical effectsobserved inyour body whenyou exercise.http://peopleloseweight.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Exercise-to-Lose-Weight-Fast-at-Home.jpg
    5. 5. Homeostasis of exercisingSweatIncreased heart rate and breathing rateMuscle acheWhat are these factors trying to counteract?http://www.volleywood.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/exercise.jpg
    6. 6. Homeostasis of exercising:counteractionSweat: increase in body temperatureIncreased heart rate and breathing rate:increased oxygen demandMuscle ache: increased cellular respiration(but anaerobic because oxygen isn’t enough)http://www.volleywood.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/exercise.jpg
    7. 7. Homeostasis of exercisingBody temperature increasesevaporation of sweat to cool offOxygen levels being used upheart and breathing rate increases to increase blood flowIncreased cellular metabolismpancreas signals breaking down of biomoleculeshttp://www.volleywood.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/exercise.jpg
    8. 8. Regulation by Feedback SystemsNegative and positive feedback
    9. 9. Example of Negative FeedbackSystemblood pressure dropsbrain nerve pathwayblood pressurerisesheart rateincreasesarteriesconstrict
    10. 10. Example of Positive FeedbackSystemprogesteronedecreaseuterus endocrine systemoxytocinincreasedcontractions
    11. 11. Regulation and Conformityhttp://www.life.illinois.edu/mcb/441/images/lecture_01_conform.gif
    12. 12. RegulatorOrganisms that moderateinternal changes in the face ofexternal fluctuationsExamples:Glycoregulator: humansOxyregulator: humans, minnowsFathead minnows survived over the winter in an ice-covered lake with seasonallylow oxygen concentrations by increasing the use of anaerobic pathways for theproduction of energy. (Klinger et al. 1982)http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/184/cache/underwater-ice-nicklen_18449_600x450.jpg
    13. 13. ConformerOrganisms that allow conditions withintheir body to vary with external changesTend to live in stable environmentsExamples:Glycoconformer: bacteriaOxyconformer:TroutOsmoconformer: marine invertebrateshttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/__zKKNDOaLr0/TH5se0eqBtI/AAAAAAAAAjE/p_ckxsGQrqo/s1600/DSC_1164.jpgSpider Crab (Libinia emarginata).Will lose or gain water to conform toexternal environment even when thisinternal adjustment causes death.
    14. 14. Continuum The same organism can beboth a regulator andconformer of differentvariables Example: Pacific salmon osmoregulator (fresh waterand salt water) thermoconformerhttp://photography.nationalgeographic.com/wallpaper/photography/photos/best-pod-november-2010/pacific-salmon-migrating/
    15. 15. ContinuumThe same organism can be both a regulatorand conformer of the same variabledepending on the environmental conditionExample: MinnowOxyconformer: larvae stageOxyregulator: when maturehttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-03212000-16120002/unrestricted/etdprint2.pdf http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/rsgis2/images/Photos/pimeprom.jpg
    16. 16. ContinuumThe same organism can be both a regulatorand conformer of the same variabledepending on the environmental conditionLizard (Anolis cristatellus)Thermoconformer: when inthe forest its not worth therisk of traveling long distancesto find a sunny patch)Thermoregulator: when inopen habitats it has abehavioural adaptation towarm up by basking in the sunhttp://www.naturephoto-cz.com/photos/sevcik/anole-lizard--norops.jpg
    17. 17. Summary of organism examplesVariable Regulator ConformerSugar levels(glyco)Oxygen use(oxy)Temperature(therm0)Salinity(osmo)
    18. 18. Summary of organism examplesVariable Regulator ConformerSugar levels(glyco)Humans BacteriaOxygen use(oxy)HumansMinnow(mature)TroutMinnows (larvae)Temperature(therm0)EndothermsLizards in openPacific salmonLizards in forestSalinity(osmo)Pacific salmon Marine invertebrates

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