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Errors in cell division
 

Errors in cell division

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    Errors in cell division Errors in cell division Presentation Transcript

    • Errors in Cell Division Cancer
    • Out of control cell division  What happens when a cell doesn’t destroy itself?  What happens when a cell doesn‘t stop dividing?
    • Terminology  Cancer: a group of diseases in which cells undergo uncontrolled division  Tumour: mass of cells that grow and divide without any obvious function in the body  Benign tumour: cells stay together having no effect on surrounding tissue other than physical crowding  Malignant tumour: cells interfere with the function of surrounding cells
    • Characteristics of Cancer Cells  Rapid cell division  Uses energy and resources of other cells  Does no useful work of its own  May undergo metastasis: cancer cells that break away from the original location and move through the blood stream to a secondary location Click on picture for animation
    • Cause of Cancer: Mutations  Genetic mutations in the parts of the DNA responsible for regulating the cell cycle  Loss of 1 or more cell cycle checkpoints http://train-srv.manipalu.com/wpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/clip-image004137.gif
    • Results of Mutation  Cell spends less time in interphase  Continuous mitosis  Rapid cell division
    • Carcinogens  Environmental factors that cause cancer Types Examples Viral Hepatitis B (liver cancer) HPV (cervical cancer) Ionizing radiation Nuclear fallout X-rays Sun (skin cancer) Mutagenic chemicals Cigarette (lung cancer)
    • Diagnosing Cancer: Imaging technologies  Endoscopy  X-ray  Ultrasound  CT/CAT scan (computerized axial tomography)  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
    • Imaging Technology: Endoscopy  Fiber-optic cable delivers a camera with light into the body and send images to a screen  Visual identification of abnormalities  Sometimes forceps are at the end so that tissue can also be removed http://www.glorysurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/endoscopy-digestion3.jpg http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2008_Groups/group11/images/endoscope.gif
    • Imaging Technology: Endoscopy http://rehab.studiocom.com/_assets/images/headers/r_fiberoptic-endoscopic-evaluation-v2.jpg http://www.1800endoscope.com/images/turtle_endoscopy.jpg
    • Imaging Technology: X-rays  Useful for bones and lungs  Disadvantage: X-rays can cause DNA damage  Think:  Why are x-rays especially damaging to rapidly dividing cells?  Who should avoid x-rays? http://www.aboutcancer.com/scl_lung_cxr_bmc_1107.jpg
    • Imaging Technology: X-rays  Mammogram: specialized x-ray for imaging breast tissue http://choicesunlimited.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/mamscam.jpg http://www.cancer.gov/PublishedContent/Images/images/documents/f8fd346c-2b66-46db-b2c3-05bb5fd19712/show.jpg
    • Imaging Technology: Ultrasound  Use high frequency sound waves to create an image  Useful for looking at soft tissue
    • Imaging Technology: Ultrasound 12 weeks Head Hands Heart
    • Imaging Technology: Ultrasound 26 weeks Head Mouth Eyes Eyes
    • Imaging Technology: CT scan  CT or CAT scan: computerized axial tomography  Uses x-ray technology  Many images are taken from different angles  Images are assembled by a computer to form a series (i.e. like a flip book) CT scan animation Brain tumor, 3D CT scan. In the 3D scan the brain is red, bone is blue and the tumour is green (on the top left)
    • Imaging Technology: CT scan
    • Imaging Technology: MRI  Magnetic resonance imaging  Uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to created detailed images  Computer assembles the information into a 3- dimensional model
    • Imaging Technology: MRI http://mnc.umd.edu/sites/default/files/images/facilities/mri-2.pnghttp://vivo.cornell.edu/file/n13329/weillMRI.jpg
    • Diagnosing Cancer: Biopsy  A sample of tissue is removed and analyzed to determine what it is CT scan animation
    • Diagnosing Cancer: Biopsy CT scan animation
    • Diagnosing Cancer: Biopsy CT scan animation
    • Reducing Risk: Screening  Important for those with a family history of cancer  Does not prevent cancer but increase the chance of detecting it early to treat it  Examples: self-examination, blood tests etc.  Some common screening:  Breast exam for breast cancer  Pap smear for cervical cancer
    • Reducing Risk: Lifestyle Choice  Healthy diet  “super foods”  Reduce body fat  Not smoking
    • Cancer Treatments  Surgery: physical removal of tumour  Chemotherapy  Radiation therapy
    • Cancer Treatment: Surgery
    • Cancer Treatment: Chemotherapy  a combination of drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells  can also affect normal rapidly dividing cells (e.g. hair follicle, intestinal cells) http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pixies/2009/4/20/1240266113308/Cancer-chemotherapy-001.jpg
    • Cancer Treatment: Radiation Therapy  Using high energy radiation to kill cancer cells but can also damage normal cells http://www.capitalmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/RadOncMachine1.jpg http://michaelyamondenglish289.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/chemotherapy-and-radiation-4.jpg