Embryogenesis
Potency
Stem Cells
Specialized Cells

Cellular Differentiation
Cellular Differentiation
 Process of producing specialized cells
 Specialized cells have physical and chemical

differen...
Stem Cells
 Unspecialized / undifferentiated

cell
 Has the potential of becoming a
specialized cell with a specific
fun...
Embryogenesis
 The formation of an embryo
 The development a new individual from a

zygote
Embryo
 A fertilized egg in the early stages of

development before hatching
 In humans, it is defined as the period fro...
Embryogenesis: Fertilization
 Germ cells / sex cells:
 sperm, ovum
 Haploid (1 copy of each chromosome, half the

genet...
Embryogenesis: Cleavage
 Morula: a solid mass of cells
 Usually defined after the 8-cell stage
 Formation of tight junc...
Embryogenesis: Blastulation
 Forming the blastula by cell division from the

morula
 Blastula: a hollow mass of cells
 ...
Blastocyst
 Differentiation begins in the blastocyst
 Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo and

some extraembryonic tissu...
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/fert/cleavage.html

Hatching
 Throughout all these stages (zygote, m...
Embryogenesis

http://stemcells.nih.gov/StaticResources/info/scireport/images/figurea2.jpg
https://ehumanbiofield.wikispaces.com/file/view/rem2s2_1.jpg/31809601/rem2s2_1.jpg
Embryogenesis: Gastrulation
 Gastrula is composed of 3 germ layers:
 Outer: Ectoderm
 Middle: Mesoderm
 Inner: Endoder...
Embryogenesis: Gastrulation
3 germ layers will eventually differentiate into
 Ectoderm: epidermis, nervous system
 Mesod...
Embryogenesis

http://www.mymcat.com/wiki/Embryogenesis
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Ks_7cDZd5lw/TOwtpEheNdI/AAAAAAAAARQ/BXZODXL1KEY/s1600/767px-HumanEmbryogenesis.svg.png

Embryoge...
A. Unfertilized egg
B. 8-cell stage
C. 16-cell stage
D. 32-cell stage
E. Morula
F. Early blastula
G. Unhatched blastula
H....
Video: The first 9 weeks of pregnancy
http://www.babycenter.ca/video/pregnancy/weeks-1-to-9-pregnancy/

http://i-newnews.c...
Embryogenesis Summarized

Hatching &
Implantation
Fertilization

Germ
cells

Cleavage

Zygote

Blastulation

Morula

Totip...
Types of Stem Cells
 Embryonic stem cells
 Stem cells taken from the pre-implantation stage of

the embryo
 Totipotent ...
Proliferative Potential: Potency
 A cell’s potential

to differentiate
 Levels of
potency:






Totipotent
Pluripo...
Totipotent
 Capable of giving rise to any and all cell types
 Somatic cells
 Germ cells
 Placenta
 Can form a whole o...
Pluripotent
 Capable of giving rise to many cell types
 Somatic cells
 Germ cells
 Can not develop into an organism be...
Embryogenesis Summarized

Hatching &
Implantation
Fertilization

Germ
cells

Cleavage

Zygote

Blastulation

Morula

Totip...
Multipotent
 Also known as progenitor cells
 Can give rise to multiple, but limited number of

lineages
 Committed to p...
Types of Adult Stem Cells
Lineage
Differentiated cells
Haematopoietic RBC, WBC, platelets etc.
Intestinal
Neural
Mesenchym...
Unipotent
 Capable of differentiating into one cell type
Terminally Differentiated
 Cells that are unable to divide
 Example: neurons, adipocyte,

cardiomyocyte, skeletal
muscle...
Location of Stem Cells
Comparing Potency
Potency

Type of stem cell

Location of cells

Totipotent

Embryonic stem cell

Zygote, morula

Pluripot...
The “typical” animal cell

Fig. 7.7 Campbell
The “typical” plant cell

Fig. 7.8 Campbell
What actual cells look like
 Cells in organisms are specialized
 Differentiation not only affects function but

also STR...
Specialized Cells
 Complex organisms

contain many different
types of cells that
perform different
functions
 Specialize...
Specialized Plant Cells:

transport cells (xylem in orange, phloem in green)
Specialized Plant Cells:
storage cells (amyloplasts)
Specialized Plant Cells:

photosynthetic cells (contain many chloroplasts)
Specialized Plant Cells:
root hair cells (epidermal)
Specialized Plant Cells:
guard cells (stomata)
Specialized Animal Cells:
blood cells (red erythrocytes & white leukocytes)
Specialized Animal Cells:
skin cells
Specialized Animal Cells:
bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts)
Specialized Animal Cells:
muscle cells
Specialized Animal Cells:
muscle cells



Cross-section: bundles
of muscle fibres



Longitudinal section:
striations

h...
Specialized Animal Cells:
gametes (sperm & egg)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bieggsperm2.jpg
Specialized Animal Cells:
gametes (sperm & egg)
Specialized Animal Cells:
fat cells (adipocytes)
Specialized Animal Cells:
fat cells (adipocytes)

 Large, central

droplet of fat
pushes the
nucleus to one
side.

http:/...
Specialized Animal Cells:
nerve cell (neurons)
Specialized Animal Cells:
nerve cell (neurons)

http://www.loria.fr/~rougier/artwork/neuro/img/neuron-SEM-
Specialized Animal Cells:
rod & cone cells (retina)
Specialized Animal Cells:
lung cells
Specialized Animal Cells:
figure 2 & 3 on p.59-60 of Nelson Perspective 10
Tissue Types
 A collection of similar cells that perform a

specialized function
 4 major types:

http://www.bio.davidso...
Muscle Tissue
 Bundles of long cells
 Capable of shortening or contracting
 Function: movement

http://www.umm.edu/grap...
Muscle Tissue


Classified based on 3 cell
types

Type

Example

Cardiac
Skeletal
Smooth

Heart
Limbs
Organs that
contrac...
Tissue Types
 A collection of similar cells that perform a

specialized function
 4 major types:

http://www.bio.davidso...
Nervous Tissue

 Neurons that interact with each other
 Conduct electrical impulses
 Communicates within the body
 Exa...
Tissue Types
 A collection of similar cells that perform a

specialized function
 4 major types:

http://www.bio.davidso...
Tissue Types

http://leavingbio.net/CELL%20DIVERSITY_files/image003.jpg
Connective Tissue
 Function: structural support, insulation
 Example: bone, cartilage, fat, blood
 Cells are held toget...
Types of Connective Tissue

http://mycozynook.com/20_05ConnectiveTissue-L.jpg
Tissue Types
 A collection of similar cells that perform a

specialized function
 4 major types:

http://www.bio.davidso...
Epithelial Tissue
 Thin sheets of tightly packed cells lining organs
 Example: skin, lining of capillaries and

digestiv...
http://cnx.org/content/m46048/latest/403_Epithelial_Tissue.jpg

Classes of
Epithelial
Tissue
Types of Epithelial Tissue

http://vet112and113.wikispaces.com/file/view/ooh!%20help.jpg/401994998/ooh!%20help.jpg
http://www.millerplace.k12.ny.us/webpages/lmiller/photos/636532/Epithelial%20Tissue%20Types%20%26%20Locations.bmp
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Differentiation

4,524

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,524
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
275
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • http://cellbio.utmb.edu/microanatomy/muscle/striated_skeletal_muscle.htm
  • http://www.loria.fr/~rougier/artwork/neuro/img/neuron-SEM-2.png
  • Differentiation

    1. 1. Embryogenesis Potency Stem Cells Specialized Cells Cellular Differentiation
    2. 2. Cellular Differentiation  Process of producing specialized cells  Specialized cells have physical and chemical differences that allow them to perform a function that is different than other cells  All specialized cells come from pre-existing cells so there must be a starter cell that is unspecialized
    3. 3. Stem Cells  Unspecialized / undifferentiated cell  Has the potential of becoming a specialized cell with a specific function  Property of self-renew for long periods of time (immortal)  Formed during the development of the embryo Stem cell division. A – stem cells B – progenitor cell C – differentiated cell
    4. 4. Embryogenesis  The formation of an embryo  The development a new individual from a zygote
    5. 5. Embryo  A fertilized egg in the early stages of development before hatching  In humans, it is defined as the period from fertilization to the end of the first 8 weeks of pregnancy  From conception, to implantation, but before organ formation
    6. 6. Embryogenesis: Fertilization  Germ cells / sex cells:  sperm, ovum  Haploid (1 copy of each chromosome, half the genetic information)  Zygote: fertilized egg  Diploid (2 copies of each chromosome) http://www.mymcat.com/wiki/Embryogenesis
    7. 7. Embryogenesis: Cleavage  Morula: a solid mass of cells  Usually defined after the 8-cell stage  Formation of tight junctions  Proteins that join 2 cell membranes together to form an impermeable barrier to fluid  Deforms the round shape of the cells http://www.mymcat.com/wiki/Embryogenesis
    8. 8. Embryogenesis: Blastulation  Forming the blastula by cell division from the morula  Blastula: a hollow mass of cells  In humans, the blastula develops into the blastocyst blastocyst http://www.mymcat.com/wiki/Embryogenesis
    9. 9. Blastocyst  Differentiation begins in the blastocyst  Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo and some extraembryonic tissue  (Outer) Trophoplast: becomes the placenta http://www.kumc.edu/images/stemcell/looklike.jpg
    10. 10. http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/fert/cleavage.html Hatching  Throughout all these stages (zygote, morula, blastula, blastocyst), the embryo has been encased in a sac called the zona pellucida  At this point, the embryo will hatch from the zona pellucida to begin implantation in the uterus
    11. 11. Embryogenesis http://stemcells.nih.gov/StaticResources/info/scireport/images/figurea2.jpg
    12. 12. https://ehumanbiofield.wikispaces.com/file/view/rem2s2_1.jpg/31809601/rem2s2_1.jpg
    13. 13. Embryogenesis: Gastrulation  Gastrula is composed of 3 germ layers:  Outer: Ectoderm  Middle: Mesoderm  Inner: Endoderm http://www.mymcat.com/wiki/Embryogenesis
    14. 14. Embryogenesis: Gastrulation 3 germ layers will eventually differentiate into  Ectoderm: epidermis, nervous system  Mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood, urinary tract  Endoderm: GI tract, lungs
    15. 15. Embryogenesis http://www.mymcat.com/wiki/Embryogenesis
    16. 16. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Ks_7cDZd5lw/TOwtpEheNdI/AAAAAAAAARQ/BXZODXL1KEY/s1600/767px-HumanEmbryogenesis.svg.png Embryogenesis
    17. 17. A. Unfertilized egg B. 8-cell stage C. 16-cell stage D. 32-cell stage E. Morula F. Early blastula G. Unhatched blastula H. Hatched blastula, vegetal pole view I. Hatched blastula J. Early mesenchyme blastula K. Late mesenchyme blastula L. Early gastrula M. Mid gastrula N. Late gastrula Embryogenesis http://ars.sciencedirect.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1567133X05001250-gr3.jpg
    18. 18. Video: The first 9 weeks of pregnancy http://www.babycenter.ca/video/pregnancy/weeks-1-to-9-pregnancy/ http://i-newnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/3060_3083_31.jpg
    19. 19. Embryogenesis Summarized Hatching & Implantation Fertilization Germ cells Cleavage Zygote Blastulation Morula Totipotent Gastrulation Blastula Blastocyst Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) Gastrula
    20. 20. Types of Stem Cells  Embryonic stem cells  Stem cells taken from the pre-implantation stage of the embryo  Totipotent or pluripotent  Somatic / Tissue / Adult stem cells  Exist within specialized tissue  Able to differentiate into certain types of cells  Multipotent
    21. 21. Proliferative Potential: Potency  A cell’s potential to differentiate  Levels of potency:      Totipotent Pluripotent Multipotent Unipotent Terminally differentiated
    22. 22. Totipotent  Capable of giving rise to any and all cell types  Somatic cells  Germ cells  Placenta  Can form a whole organism / embryo  Totipotent cells: zygote, morula
    23. 23. Pluripotent  Capable of giving rise to many cell types  Somatic cells  Germ cells  Can not develop into an organism because incapable of producing extraembryonic tissue  placenta  Pluripotent cells: blastocyst
    24. 24. Embryogenesis Summarized Hatching & Implantation Fertilization Germ cells Cleavage Zygote Blastulation Morula Totipotent Gastrulation Blastula Blastocyst Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) Gastrula
    25. 25. Multipotent  Also known as progenitor cells  Can give rise to multiple, but limited number of lineages  Committed to produce specific cell types and thus specialization potential is limited to one or more cell lines  Adult / tissue stem cells: found in the tissues of adult mammals
    26. 26. Types of Adult Stem Cells Lineage Differentiated cells Haematopoietic RBC, WBC, platelets etc. Intestinal Neural Mesenchymal Endothelial Cells on lining of large and small intestine Astrocyte, oligodendrocytes, neurons bone, cartilage, fat, cells that support the formation of blood, and fibrous connective tissue Endothelial tissue that line the walls of blood and lymphatic vessels
    27. 27. Unipotent  Capable of differentiating into one cell type
    28. 28. Terminally Differentiated  Cells that are unable to divide  Example: neurons, adipocyte, cardiomyocyte, skeletal muscle cells, skin cells Stem cell division. A – stem cells; B – progenitor cell; C – differentiated cell; 1 – symmetric stem cell division; 2 – asymmetric stem cell division; 3 – progenitor division; 4 – terminal differentiation http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6180/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stem_cell_division_and_differentiation.svg
    29. 29. Location of Stem Cells
    30. 30. Comparing Potency Potency Type of stem cell Location of cells Totipotent Embryonic stem cell Zygote, morula Pluripotent Embryonic stem cell Blastocyst Multipotent Adult / Tissue / Somatic stem cell In various tissues
    31. 31. The “typical” animal cell Fig. 7.7 Campbell
    32. 32. The “typical” plant cell Fig. 7.8 Campbell
    33. 33. What actual cells look like  Cells in organisms are specialized  Differentiation not only affects function but also STRUCTURE  Cells physically look different from each other
    34. 34. Specialized Cells  Complex organisms contain many different types of cells that perform different functions  Specialized cells have physical and chemical differences that allow them to perform one job very well
    35. 35. Specialized Plant Cells: transport cells (xylem in orange, phloem in green)
    36. 36. Specialized Plant Cells: storage cells (amyloplasts)
    37. 37. Specialized Plant Cells: photosynthetic cells (contain many chloroplasts)
    38. 38. Specialized Plant Cells: root hair cells (epidermal)
    39. 39. Specialized Plant Cells: guard cells (stomata)
    40. 40. Specialized Animal Cells: blood cells (red erythrocytes & white leukocytes)
    41. 41. Specialized Animal Cells: skin cells
    42. 42. Specialized Animal Cells: bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts)
    43. 43. Specialized Animal Cells: muscle cells
    44. 44. Specialized Animal Cells: muscle cells  Cross-section: bundles of muscle fibres  Longitudinal section: striations http://cellbio.utmb.edu/microanatomy/muscle/striated_skeletal_muscle.htm
    45. 45. Specialized Animal Cells: gametes (sperm & egg) http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bieggsperm2.jpg
    46. 46. Specialized Animal Cells: gametes (sperm & egg)
    47. 47. Specialized Animal Cells: fat cells (adipocytes)
    48. 48. Specialized Animal Cells: fat cells (adipocytes)  Large, central droplet of fat pushes the nucleus to one side. http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/adipos2.jpg
    49. 49. Specialized Animal Cells: nerve cell (neurons)
    50. 50. Specialized Animal Cells: nerve cell (neurons) http://www.loria.fr/~rougier/artwork/neuro/img/neuron-SEM-
    51. 51. Specialized Animal Cells: rod & cone cells (retina)
    52. 52. Specialized Animal Cells: lung cells
    53. 53. Specialized Animal Cells: figure 2 & 3 on p.59-60 of Nelson Perspective 10
    54. 54. Tissue Types  A collection of similar cells that perform a specialized function  4 major types: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/BerndCV/Lab/EpithelialInfoWeb/index_clip_image001.jpg
    55. 55. Muscle Tissue  Bundles of long cells  Capable of shortening or contracting  Function: movement http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/19917.jpg
    56. 56. Muscle Tissue  Classified based on 3 cell types Type Example Cardiac Skeletal Smooth Heart Limbs Organs that contract (e.g. stomach, intestine, bladder, uterus) Control Fatigue Resistance Involuntary Very Voluntary Not Involuntary Yes
    57. 57. Tissue Types  A collection of similar cells that perform a specialized function  4 major types: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/BerndCV/Lab/EpithelialInfoWeb/index_clip_image001.jpg
    58. 58. Nervous Tissue  Neurons that interact with each other  Conduct electrical impulses  Communicates within the body  Example: brain http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_guSOnFRs_Ks/TNvFt3IAtSI/AAAAAAAAAQc/_0oQdq46EmY/s1600/neurons.jpg
    59. 59. Tissue Types  A collection of similar cells that perform a specialized function  4 major types: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/BerndCV/Lab/EpithelialInfoWeb/index_clip_image001.jpg
    60. 60. Tissue Types http://leavingbio.net/CELL%20DIVERSITY_files/image003.jpg
    61. 61. Connective Tissue  Function: structural support, insulation  Example: bone, cartilage, fat, blood  Cells are held together by a liquid / solid / gel matrix
    62. 62. Types of Connective Tissue http://mycozynook.com/20_05ConnectiveTissue-L.jpg
    63. 63. Tissue Types  A collection of similar cells that perform a specialized function  4 major types: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/BerndCV/Lab/EpithelialInfoWeb/index_clip_image001.jpg
    64. 64. Epithelial Tissue  Thin sheets of tightly packed cells lining organs  Example: skin, lining of capillaries and digestive tract  Function:  Prevent dehydration  Reduce friction
    65. 65. http://cnx.org/content/m46048/latest/403_Epithelial_Tissue.jpg Classes of Epithelial Tissue
    66. 66. Types of Epithelial Tissue http://vet112and113.wikispaces.com/file/view/ooh!%20help.jpg/401994998/ooh!%20help.jpg
    67. 67. http://www.millerplace.k12.ny.us/webpages/lmiller/photos/636532/Epithelial%20Tissue%20Types%20%26%20Locations.bmp
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×