Exceptions for nouns ending in ‘a’There is a small group of words that come from the Greeklanguage that end with –ma, -pa or –ta and thesewords are masculine.el problema = the problemel tema = the themeel sistema = the systemel mapa = the mapel poeta = the poetel planeta = the planetel clima = the climate, the weather
Other common exceptions are …el día – the day, daytimeel mediodía – noonel gorila – the gorillael pijama – pajamasel sofá – sofa
What are articles?The English definite article is ‘the’.The English indefinite articles are ‘a’, ‘an’ and‘some’.
There are more articles in Spanishthan there are in English:There are the definite articles ‘el’, ‘la’, ‘los’ and ‘las’– all meaning ‘the’.and the indefinite articles ‘unas’ and ‘unos’ meaning ‘some’.
In Spanish, masculine nouns go withthe masculine articles and femininenouns go with feminine articles.
Nouns with their articlesMasculine nouns go with masculine articlestheman:el hombrea man:unhombreFeminine nouns go with feminine articlesthe woman: lamujerawoman:unamujer
Your turn …. change ‘the’ to ‘a’ – make sure that you usethe right gender, masculine or feminine.Eg. el hombre un hombrelaseñorita (the young lady) ____señorita (a young lady)elchico (the boy) ____chico (a boy)la mesa (the table) ____ mesa (a table)
Nouns can have number as well as gender,that means they can be singular or pluralIf you want to make a noun plural:just add an -s if the noun ends in a vowel,or add an -esif the noun ends in a consonantmujer = woman mujeres = womenhombre = man hombres = men
The articles: can also be pluralthe (pl) and some
Singular nouns go with singular articles,plural nouns go with plural articlesthe man: el hombrethe men: los hombressome men: unos hombresthe woman: la mujerthe women: lasmujeressome women: unasmujeres
Fill the gaps with the appropriateplural articleEg. The men. Los hombresSome men. Unos hombres.• The children. ____ niños.• Some children. ____ niños.• The girls. ____ chicas.• Some girls. ____ chicas.• The books. ____ libros.• Some books. ____ libros.• The tables. ____ mesas.• Some tables. ____ mesas.
Adjectives too can havegender and numbergordo = fat (masculine singular)gordos = fat (masculine plural)El chicogordo. (The fat boy.) La chicagorda. (The fat girl.)gorda = fat (feminine singular)gordas = fat (feminine plural)
Adjectives match the noun theydescribe in gender & numberEl hombre gordo. = The fat man.Los hombres gordos. = The fat men.Lamujergorda. = The fat woman.Lasmujeresgordas. = The fat women.
What about nouns that don’t end in o or a?Here are some general rules …..Nouns ending in -dad / -tad / -tud are normally femininela ciudad = the cityla edad = the agelauniversidad= the university
Can you make those nouns plural?la ciudad = the cityla edad = the agela universidad = the universityhmmmm….
Did you say? ….lasciudades= the citieslasedades= the agesla universidades= the universitiesThen you would be quite right!
But back to nouns thatdon’t end in –a or –o• Nouns that end in –cion / -sión / -gion areusually femininela canción = the songla estación = the stationla lección = the lesson
… so are nouns that refer to women:la madre – motherla mujer – woman, wifela chica – the girlla hija – the daughterla tía – the auntla abuela – the grandma
Abstract nouns ending in –ez are alsousually femininerigidez – rigidityla sensatez – sobernessla validez – validityla vejez - old age, oldnessSo are nouns ending –trizla actriz – the actressla directriz – the directivela emperatriz – the empress
More feminine nounsNouns ending in –umbrela costumbre (habit, custom)la incertidumbre (uncertainty, doubt)la legumbre (legume)Nouns that are feminine in their full form stay feminine even whenshortened:la disco* – la discotecala foto – la fotografíala moto – la motocicletala tele – la televisión*(but when referring to a disk it’s el disco, masc)
Some nouns are feminine but are usedwith the masculine singular articleAgua is still really feminine noun, but to make it easier tosay, it borrows the masculine singular article ‘el’.For the plural form it goes back to using the feminine pluralarticles ‘las’ or ‘unas’ as usual.el agua (water)lasaguas (the waters), unasaguas (some waters)
Nouns with a stressed ‘a’ or ‘ha’syllable at the beginningIntheir singular form these nouns borrow the masculinesingular pronouns "el” and "un" .el asma (asthma), el habla (speech),el hada (fairy), el hambre (hunger)But in their plural forms, its back to normal with the femininearticles ….el alma (soul) lasalmas(souls)
Masculine Noun EndingsMost nouns that end in –r, -l, -sand –n will bemasculine.Other endings that can indicate a masculine nouninclude …. – ambreand –ajeel alambre = wireel enjambre = swarm of beesel equipaje = luggageel paisaje = landscape
More masculine noun endingsNouns that end in –or or –ánare usuallymasculine as are those that end in a stressedvowel (í, ú etc).el amor = loveel calor = heatel sudor = sweatel champú = shampoo
Some nouns have different meanings dependingon which article you with them.el capital = capital la capital = capital cityel cólera = cholera la cólera = anger, bileel coma = coma la coma = commael corte = cut la corte = courtel cura = priest la cura = cureel final = ending la final = sports finalel frente = front la frente = foreheadel papa = the pope la papa = potatoel pendiente = earring la pendiente = slope, hillsideel pez = fish la pez = tar, pitch
Nouns that refer to peopleSome nouns referring to people don’t change their endings but used with thefeminine article they refer to a female and with the masculine article theyrefer to a male.la modelo = the model el modelo = the modelA number of these nouns end in –istaor–crata.un/unaamante= a lover un/unaguía = a (tour) guideel/la idiota = the idiot, el/la testigo = the witnessel/la artista = artist el/la florista = florist el/laaristócrata= aristocrat
Would you like to see what you canremember?Name the Spanish singular masculine article that means ‘the’: elGood, now how about the feminine one that also means ‘the’? laWhat are the plural forms of ‘el’ and ‘la’? los and lasExcellent, now can you tell me the two Spanish words for ‘some’? unos or unasYou’ve got it, now lets test those noun endings, are these nouns masculine or feminine?:alambre? masculine because it has the –ambre endinglección? feminine because it has the -ción ending.Great, now to finish up, what’s special about ‘agua’ (water) in its singular form?It borrows the masculine articles to make it easier to pronounce. Exactly!And what’s different about ‘mano’ (hand)? It ends in ‘o’ but it’s a feminine noun, la mano.Top work – ¡bienhecho! I think you’re ready to move on to the next subject!