To make known the students about the background education and biography of the Islamic scholar.
To inspire the students to be excellent in their field as what had been achieved by previous Islamic scholars in the period of ‘Islamic renaissance’.
Name : 'Abu 'Ali al-Husin ibn 'Abdullah ibn Sina
D.O.B : August 980 A.D. (Safar 370 A.H.)
P.O.B : in the village of Afshana near Bukhara, Turkistan.
His father : Abdullah, from Balkh, the local governor of Kharmaithan,
His mother : Sitareh, from Afshana .
D.O.D : 1037 A.D ( 480 A.H)
Ibn Sina is known to the West by the Europeanized Hebrew translation of his name, Avicenna (Aven Sina).
Avicenna was born at a time when Bukhara was the capital and intellectual center of the Samanid dynasty, which ruled over much of Eastern Iran (Persia) and Afghanistan (Khurasan) until the rise of Mahmud of Ghazna of Afghanistan.
He was known as a great physician and philosopher in his time.
Also expert in astrology, chemistry, math, physiology, physic, theology and pharmacology.
Wrote more than 450 journals and books from variety discipline of knowledge.
Today, only 240 of his books still exist. 150 from it in the field of philosophy and 40 of it relates to medicine.
The famous books – kitab al-shifa’ dan Al-Qanun fit tibb.
His early education was religious, and by the age of 10, he knew by heart the whole Qur'an and other available Persian and Arabic literature.
Because of Avicenna's remarkable talent, his father employed a private teacher, al-Natali , to instruct him in arithmetic, geometry, logic, natural sciences, and astronomy.
When ibn Sina reached the age of thirteen he began to study medicine and he had mastered that subject by the age of sixteen when he began to treat patients.
He also studied logic and metaphysics, receiving instruction from some of the best teachers of his day, but in all areas he continued his studies on his own.
In his autobiography, (W E Gohlman (ed. and trans.), The life of Ibn Sina ,(New York, 1974) ibn Sina stresses that he was more or less self-taught but that at crucial times in his life he received help.
Fame and recognition – when the Sultan of Bukhara, Nuh ibn Mansur al-Samai, fell seriously ill with a disease was successfully treated by Avicenna. (he was 18 years old.)
For his services, Avicenna was awarded free access to the Sultan's rich library.
By the age of 21, Avicenna wrote his first collection of books which include "Kitab al-Majmu" (The Compendium), on mathematics and sciences of the day, "Kitab al-Hasil w'al-Mahsul" (The Import and the Substance), 20 volumes on jurisprudence, and "Kitab al-Birr w'al-Ithm" (Good Work and Evil), on ethics.
Following the death of his father, Avicenna left Bukhara for Jurjaniyah and offered his services to the Khawarzmian dynasty.
In this court, he wrote "Kitab al-Tadaruk li-anwa al-Khata' fi'l-Tadbir" and "Qiyam al-'Ard fi wasat al-Sama'" on mathematics and astronomy, respectively.
During this period, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna had also gathered in his court many intellectuals and poets including al-Firdusi, who is considered to be the father of Persian language.
Unfortunately, Mahmud of Ghazna was filled with envy at the brilliance of men of science like Avicenna at the Khawarazm court and demanded Avicenna's attendance in his own royal court.
However, Avicenna chose to escape to Gurgan and then to Jurjan.At that time Jurjan was under the rule of Syams al-Maa’li Qabus bin Wasymakir , 1012 A.D (402 A.H)
Here, he was joined with his lifetime companion , Abd al-Wahid Abu ‘Ubaid al -Juzjani and composed the "Kitab-al-Mukhtasar al-Awsat," "Kitab al-Mabda' w'al-Ma'ad," and "al-Arsad alKulliyyah," along with chapters which later formed parts of "al-Najat" and "al-Qanun."
A-Juzjani was his student and his companion ,who, after the death of Ibnu Sina, had make a written biography of his journey in lifetime.
When Sultan Qabus was killed and caused chaos in the politic administration, Ibnu sina together with Al-Jurjani moved to Rayy, then to Quzwain and to Hamadan.
In Rayy- he treated a prince, who suffered melancholia and depression (Majd al-Dawlat 387-420 A.H) in the palace.
Ibnu Sina moved to Quzwain when Sultan Majd al-Dawlat cannot control his army from rebel.
From Quzwain, he moved to Hamadan in 1015 A.D (405 A.H). There he treated Amir Syams Al-Dawlat from colic and successfully cured the diseased.
He had been appointed as prime minister and colleague of the Amir.
The army rebel and detained Ibnu Sina, displeased with his appointment, ask Amir to sentence him to death.
Amir refused – being forced, finally ask Ibnu Sina to leave the city.
He hiding himself for 40 days in the house of Abi’ Sa’id bin Dakhduk – then Amir sick again, asked to come to the palace to do the treatment for the Amir.
after being cured, reinstated him as the prime minister.
Avicenna wrote his peripatetic philosophy, "Kitab al-Shifa" (The Book of the Remedy) and "al-Adwiyat al-Qalbiyyah" The Remedies of the Heart) while he was burdened with state duties.
Then in 414 A.H, on the death of Shams-ul-Dawlah, his successor offered to keep Avicenna in his post, but he refused, was jailed.
In the detention he finished his writing for kitab Al-Hidayat.
After 4 months – released by Sultan Ala’ al-Dawlat, he went to Isfahan. Stayed there for 13 years.
During the 15 years of his stay in Isphahan, he composed numerous books including the "Kitab al-Najat" (The Book of Deliverance) and the "Danishnama-yi Alai" (The Alai-i-Book of Knowledge) which he wrote in Farsi.
Avicenna died at an early age of 58 while on a journey back to Hamadan (Iran) where he rests today.
Ibn Sina's wrote about 450 works, of which around 240 have survived. Of the surviving works, 150 are on philosophy while 40 are devoted to medicine, the two fields in which he contributed most.
Ibn Sina's two most important works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine.
The first is a scientific encyclopedia covering logic, natural sciences, psychology, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music.
The second is the most famous single book in the history of medicine.
These works were begun while he was in Hamadan. He also wrote on psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic.
Discovery of contagious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases.
Quarantine to limit the spread of infectious diseases
Bimaristan hospitals were created with separate wards for specific illness
Ibn Sīnā is credited as being the first to correctly document the anatomy of the human eye.
The workings of the heart as a valve are described
The first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse.
" every part of an artery pulsates simultaneously" and that the motion of the pulse was due to natural motions (the arteries expanding and contracting naturally) as opposed to forced motions (the heart causing the arteries to either expand or contract).
Galen theory that had been refined by Ibnu sina:
“ Every beat of the pulse comprises two movements and two pauses. Thus, expansion : pause : contraction : pause. The pulse is a movement in the heart and arteries ... which takes the form of alternate expansion and contraction”.
examining the pulse through the examination of the wrist
He recognized 'physiological psychology' in the treatment of illnesses involving emotions.
Developed a system for associating pulse rate with inner feeling.
Ibnu sina noted that, the close relationship between emotion and physical condition – to preserve healthy
Felt that music has physical and psychological effect on the patient.
Described a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including melancholia.
Introduce medical herbs.
Extended theory of temperaments
encompass “emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self awareness ,
movement and dream”
Avicenna's four humours and temperaments Evidence Hot Cold Moist Dry Morbid states inflammations become febrile fevers related to serious humour, rheumatism lassitude loss of vigour Functional power deficient energy deficient digestive power difficult digestion Subjective sensations bitter taste , excessive thirst , burning at cardia Lack of desire for fluids mucoid salivation , sleepiness insomnia , wakefulness Physical signs high pulse rate, lassitude flaccid joints diarrhea , swollen eyelids , rough skin, acquired habit rough skin, acquired habit Foods & medicines calefacients harmful, infrigidants beneficial infrigidants harmful, calefacients beneficial moist articles harmful dry regimen harmful, humectants beneficial Relation to weather worse in summer worse in winter bad in autumn
Recognized cancer as a tumor.
He noted that;
"cancerous tumor progressively increases in size, is destructive and spreads roots which insinuate themselves amongst the tissue elements."
Discover about cancer treatment
found a treatment known as hindiba
a complex medical herb from Ibnu al-Baitar
Another treatment for cancer is surgery
He also recommend cauterization method to kill germ
Discover the cause of bleeding and hemorrhage
Introduce use of medical leech for medical purposes
- It considered the application of leech to be more useful than cupping in "letting off the blood from deeper parts of the body."
- He also introduced the use of leech as treatment for skin disease.
Describes the symptoms and complications of diabetes.
Described importance of colour in diagnosis and treatment
It stated that "Color is an observable symptom of disease" and also developed a chart that related colour to the temperature and physical condition of the body.
His view was that:
+ red - moved the blood
+ blue or white - cooled it
+ yellow -reduced muscular pain and inflammation
The wrong colour will not give effect in certain specific disease
As an example, "he observed that a person with a nosebleed should not gaze at things of a brilliant red color and should not be exposed to red light because this would stimulate the sanguineous humor, whereas blue would soothe it and reduce blood flow."