PRODUCTION SKILLS –MOVING IMAGE
Stages of production   Planning   Production (shooting)   Post-production (editing)
Planning   Idea     Mood  board, mind-map, brainstorm     Set brief from OCR   Script     Including all dialogue but ...
Production   Camera   Action   Sound   Lighting
Post-Production   Editing   Export and Presentation
Scripting   A film script uses the following conventions:       Dialogue:         Character names centre justified     ...
Storyboarding   A storyboard is a graphical representation of    the camera shots in a film sequence which are    connect...
What are storyboards for?   Helps the director to visualise the flow of camera    shots   Illustrates how the narrative ...
The Storyboard
Example Storyboard
Example Storyboard
Example of Storyboard andfinished product   Gorillaz: Clint Eastwood     FinishedVideo     Storyboard animatic
Return toplanning
Use of the camera – shot choice            LS            (Long Shot)                        CU                 (Close Up) ...
The Grammar of shot choice   Shots tell the audience different things   LS and WS set the scene and give context.    Whe...
The “sentence” of a sequence   In this sequence from The Ring notice how the    director uses a long shot as his exterior...
The 180° Rule   Two characters (or anything)    within a scene should always    have the same left-right    relationship ...
Angles   Commonly action is shot from the same level   Shooting from below the action is using a low    angle shot. This...
Sound   There are two types of sound in a filmed    sequence:     Diegetic  sound: this is sound that is contained in th...
Lighting   Lighting a scene is    critical to making it    look good   Lighting which looks    natural, bright and    su...
Editing   We use Adobe Premier Pro as our editing    programme in school   It is available on all computers   Please no...
Transitions   Transitions between shots also communicate    meaning. Don’t get too fancy…     Cut: this is sequential in...
Matching Action   Cutting from one shot to the next should    directly sequential to the audience   However, you will ha...
Putting it all together   This is a video made by two ex-students, now at    University studying Media   Notice how they...
Preliminary Video Task   Film and edit a sequence in which:    a  character opens a door, crosses a room and     sits do...
Export and Presentation   Once the sequence is fully edited in    Premier, export it as a .avi file and upload it to    Y...
Production Groups   Billy, Joe, Jack, Cameron: Sherman    Productions   Evie, Hannah, Jasmine, Tilly: Firefly    Product...
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Production skills – moving image

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Guidelines for the preliminary moving image production task for the end of Year 12 Media Studies

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Production skills – moving image

  1. 1. PRODUCTION SKILLS –MOVING IMAGE
  2. 2. Stages of production Planning Production (shooting) Post-production (editing)
  3. 3. Planning Idea  Mood board, mind-map, brainstorm  Set brief from OCR Script  Including all dialogue but also direction, action and settings. (Example Script) Storyboard  Visualisation of the shots to communicate the script
  4. 4. Production Camera Action Sound Lighting
  5. 5. Post-Production Editing Export and Presentation
  6. 6. Scripting A film script uses the following conventions:  Dialogue:  Character names centre justified  Dialogue indented under the character name  Action  Left justified  Key props or features (for the production designer) and actions or sounds (for the director) in capitals  See example script  Return to Planning
  7. 7. Storyboarding A storyboard is a graphical representation of the camera shots in a film sequence which are connected together to create a “narrative flow”. The narrative of the sequence is visualised by a series of drawings which depict location, character, props and setting of each shot Images are accompanied by text detailing action, camera directions, lighting directions and sometimes basic dialogue
  8. 8. What are storyboards for? Helps the director to visualise the flow of camera shots Illustrates how the narrative will flow from one shot to the next for the audience Used as the basis of discussion between director and the director of photography to decide how shots need to be acted, lit and shot  In a production meeting, a picture really is worth a thousand words. You can script a sequence in words as clearly as you like, and there will always be some misunderstanding. But if you use storyboards, it’s so much easier to communicate your visual and dramatic ideas.
  9. 9. The Storyboard
  10. 10. Example Storyboard
  11. 11. Example Storyboard
  12. 12. Example of Storyboard andfinished product Gorillaz: Clint Eastwood  FinishedVideo  Storyboard animatic
  13. 13. Return toplanning
  14. 14. Use of the camera – shot choice LS (Long Shot) CU (Close Up) WS (Wide Shot) VCU (Very Close Up) MS (Medium Shot) ECU (Extreme Close Up)
  15. 15. The Grammar of shot choice Shots tell the audience different things LS and WS set the scene and give context. When used at the start of a sequence these are called establishing shots. MS is used for action including spoken action CU is used for reaction and emotional content VCU and ECU are used to show fine detail or to make the audience uncomfortable
  16. 16. The “sentence” of a sequence In this sequence from The Ring notice how the director uses a long shot as his exterior establishing shot, then a wide two-shot to establish the interior The beginning of the conversation is shot with medium shots of each girl As the emotional content of the conversation increases, he moves in for close-ups When the tension is released, he pulls out to MS again for the action
  17. 17. The 180° Rule Two characters (or anything) within a scene should always have the same left-right relationship with one another Imagine a line (the axis) connecting the two subjects You can place your camera anywhere on one side of the line, but you can never cross the axis 2 3 When shooting a conversation, OTS (over-the- 1 shoulder) shots help the audience follow it The sequence of swapping from one view to the opposite is Notice how the same sequence called shot/reverse shot (from from The Ring obeys the 180° rule angle 2 to 3 and back) and uses OTS shots.
  18. 18. Angles Commonly action is shot from the same level Shooting from below the action is using a low angle shot. This puts the subject in a position of power over the audience. Shooting from above the action is using a high angle shot. This puts the audience in a position of power over the subject. Shooting the action crooked is using a canted angle. This creates disorientation. Notice how the director in The Ring uses high angles to make Katie seem vulnerable here and here. Return to Production
  19. 19. Sound There are two types of sound in a filmed sequence:  Diegetic sound: this is sound that is contained in the scene that you are filming. It can include dialogue, noises made by the characters, or objects in the scene. The characters will be able to hear diegetic sounds. If you can hear it but not see it, the sound is OOS (out of shot)  Non-diegetic sound: this is sound that is added on and separate to the scene. This can include musical soundtrack, voice-over and effects. Characters will not be able to hear non-diegetic sound. Listen for examples of non-diegetic sound in The Return to Production
  20. 20. Lighting Lighting a scene is critical to making it look good Lighting which looks natural, bright and sunny with indistinct edges is called high key lighting Obvious lighting with high contrasts, creating dramatic shadows and Return to Production
  21. 21. Editing We use Adobe Premier Pro as our editing programme in school It is available on all computers Please note that video files are very large We advise you to use a folder on the desktop of your computer. If you use your area on the network you will run out of space, and the network may not run quickly enough. Make a folder with your group’s name on it. You will need to work on the same computer each time.
  22. 22. Transitions Transitions between shots also communicate meaning. Don’t get too fancy…  Cut: this is sequential in time from one shot to the next. The second shot follows directly on from the action in the first.  Fade through black: indicates that time has passed between the second shot and the first  Dissolve/Wipe: can indicate a flashback or a change of scene
  23. 23. Matching Action Cutting from one shot to the next should directly sequential to the audience However, you will have filmed the two shots at different times It is vital that you match the action from one shot to the next so that there is no “jump” as the camera cuts The cut should be invisible to the audience Notice how the director matches the action across cuts in our sequence from The Ring.
  24. 24. Putting it all together This is a video made by two ex-students, now at University studying Media Notice how they use the techniques of film-making we have discussing including:  Shot choice  Angles  Action matching  Shot/reverse shot  The 180° rule  Diegetic and non-diegetic sound The Stairs
  25. 25. Preliminary Video Task Film and edit a sequence in which: a character opens a door, crosses a room and sits down in a chair opposite another character, with whom she/he then exchanges a couple of lines of dialogue. This task should demonstrate match on action, shot/reverse shot and the 180-degree rule. Try and make this interesting!
  26. 26. Export and Presentation Once the sequence is fully edited in Premier, export it as a .avi file and upload it to YouTube before embedding it into your blog. Make sure you also post your planning including script and storyboard Take some still photos of your video shoot and post them to show what you were doing Take screenshots of the edit in Premier to demonstrate your progress
  27. 27. Production Groups Billy, Joe, Jack, Cameron: Sherman Productions Evie, Hannah, Jasmine, Tilly: Firefly Productions Katie, Carly, Jess: JKC Productions Poppy, Emma, Keith, Louise: Lights, Camera, Action Productions

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